• 1
    Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB, Bennett RM, Bombardier C, Goldenberg DL, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia: report of the multicenter criteria committee. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33: 16072.
  • 2
    Wolfe F, Ross K, Anderson J, Russell IJ. Aspects of fibromyalgia in the general population: sex, pain threshold, and fibromyalgia symptoms. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 1516.
  • 3
    Aaron LA, Buchwald D. A review of the evidence for overlap among unexplained clinical conditions. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134: 86881.
  • 4
    Doebbeling BN, Clarke WR, Watson D, Torner JC, Woolson RF, Voelker MD, et al. Is there a Persian Gulf War syndrome? Evidence from a large population-based survey of veterans and nondeployed controls. Am J Med 2000; 108: 695704.
  • 5
    Fukuda K, Nisenbaum R, Stewart G, Thompson WW, Robin L, Washko RM, et al. Chronic multisymptom illness affecting Air Force veterans of the Gulf War. JAMA 1998; 280: 9818.
  • 6
    Bennett RM, Campbell S, Burckhardt C, Clark S, O'Reilly C, Wiens A. A multidisciplinary approach to fibromyalgia management: balanced approach provides small but significant gains. J Musculoskeletal Medicine 1991; 8: 2132.
  • 7
    Masi AT, Yunus MB. Fibromyalgia: which is the best treatment? A personalized, comprehensive, ambulatory, patient-involved management programme. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol 1991; 4: 33370.
  • 8
    Turk DC, Okifuji A, Sinclair JD, Starz TW. Pain, disability, and physical functioning in subgroups of patients with fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 125562.
  • 9
    Bradley LA, Prokop CK, Margolis R, Gentry WD. Multivariate analyses of the MMPI profiles of low back pain patients. J Behavioral Med 1978; 1: 25372.
  • 10
    Keefe FJ, Bradley LA, Crisson JE. Behavioral assessment of low back pain: identification of pain behavior subgroups. Pain 1990; 40: 15360.
  • 11
    Williams DA, Keefe FJ. Pain beliefs and the use of cognitive-behavioral coping strategies. Pain 1991; 46: 18590.
  • 12
    Williams DA, Urban B, Keefe FJ, Shutty MS, France R. Cluster analyses of pain patients' responses to the SCL-90R. Pain 1995; 61: 8191.
  • 13
    Turk DC, Okifuji A, Sinclair JD, Starz TW. Differential responses by psychosocial subgroups of fibromyalgia syndrome patients to an interdisciplinary treatment. Arthritis Care Res 1998; 11: 397404.
  • 14
    Wolfe F. The relation between tender points and fibromyalgia symptom variables: evidence that fibromyalgia is not a discrete disorder in the clinic. Ann Rheum Dis 1997; 56: 26871.
  • 15
    Petzke F, Gracely RH, Park KM, Ambrose K, Clauw DJ. What do tender points measure? Influence of distress on 4 measures of tenderness. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 56774.
  • 16
    Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement 1977; 1: 385401.
  • 17
    Hertzog C, Van Alstine J, Usala PD, Hultsch D, Dixon R. Measurement properties of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in older populations. Psychological Assessment 1990; 2: 6472.
  • 18
    Preliminary manual for the State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI). Spielberger CD, editor. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press; 2000.
  • 19
    Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (self-evaluation questionnaire). Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene R, editors. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press; 1979.
  • 20
    Rosenstiel AK, Keefe FJ. The use of coping strategies in chronic low back pain patients: relationship to patient characteristics and current adjustment. Pain 1983; 17: 3344.
  • 21
    Ware JEJ, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Medical Care 1992; 30: 47383.
  • 22
    Beaton DE, Hogg-Johnson S, Bombardier C. Evaluating changes in health status: reliability and responsiveness of five generic health status measures in workers with musculoskeletal disorders. J Clin Epidemiol 1997; 50: 7993.
  • 23
    Petzke F, Khine A, Williams D, Groner K, Clauw DJ, Gracely RH. Dolorimetry performed at 3 paired tender points highly predicts overall tenderness. J Rheumatol 2001; 28: 25689.
  • 24
    Gracely RH, Dubner R, McGrath PA. Narcotic analgesia: fentanyl reduces the intensity but not the unpleasantness of painful tooth pulp sensations. Science 1979; 203: 12613.
  • 25
    Gracely RH, Lota L, Walter DJ, Dubner R. A multiple random staircase method of psychophysical pain assessment. Pain 1988; 32: 5563.
  • 26
    Milligan GW. A review of Monte-Carlo tests of cluster-analysis. Multivariate Behavioral Research 1981; 16: 379407.
  • 27
    Buckelew SP, Parker JC, Keefe FJ, Deuser WE, Crews TM, Conway R, et al. Self-efficacy and pain behavior among subjects with fibromyalgia. Pain 1994; 59: 37784.
  • 28
    Dickens C, Jayson M, Sutton C, Creed F. The relationship between pain and depression in a trial using paroxetine in sufferers of chronic low back pain. Psychosomatics 2000; 41: 4909.
  • 29
    White KP, Nielson WR, Harth M, Ostbye T, Speechley M. Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain with or without fibromyalgia: psychological distress in a representative community adult sample. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 58894.
  • 30
    Croft P, Schollum J, Silman A. Population study of tender point counts and pain as evidence of fibromyalgia. BMJ 1994; 309: 6969.