A case of synovial chondromatosis affecting the temporomandibular joint is reported and the literature is reviewed. Chondromatosis occurs most frequently in this joint in middle-aged women, and it presents with pain and tenderness over the joint. Radiologically, the condition is detected by widening of the joint space with the variable presence of radiodense loose bodies. Pathologically, the loose bodies in the case presented were demonstrated to arise from cartilaginous metaplasia of the synovial lining. The stimulus for synovial chondrometaplasia at this site is unknown.