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  • 1
    Scott DL, Coulton BL, Symmons DPM, Popert AJ: Long-term outcome of treating rheumatoid arthritis: results after 20 years. Lancet 1: 11081111, 1987
  • 2
    Pincus T: Rheumatoid arthritis: disappointing long-term outcomes despite successful short-term clinical trials. J Clin Epidemiol 41: 10371041, 1988
  • 3
    Iannuzzi L, Dawson N, Zein N, Kushner I: Does drug therapy slow radiographic deterioration in rheumatoid arthritis? N Engl J Med 309: 10231028, 1983
  • 4
    Kushner I: Does aggressive therapy of RA affect outcome? J Rheumatol 16: 14, 1989
  • 5
    McCarty DJ, Carrera GF: Intractable rheumatoid arthritis: treatment with combined cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, and hydroxychloroquine. JAMA 248: 17181723, 1982
  • 6
    Wilske KR, Healey LA: Remodeling the pyramid: a concept whose time has come. J Rheumatol 16: 57, 1989
  • 7
    The Research Sub-Committee of the Empire Rheumatism Council: Gold therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: report of a multi-centre controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis 19: 95117, 1960
  • 8
    The Cooperating Clinics Committee of the American Rheumatism Association: A controlled trial of gold salt therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 16: 353358, 1973
  • 9
    Sigler JW, Bluhm GB, Duncan H, Sharp JT, Ensign DC, McCrum WR: Gold salts in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind study. Ann Intern Med 80: 2126, 1974
  • 10
    Ward JR, Williams HJ, Egger MJ, Reading JC, Boyce E, Altz-Smith M, Samuelson CO Jr, Willkens RF, Solsky MA, Hayes SP, Blocka KL, Weinstein A, Meenan RF, Guttadauria M, Kaplan SB, Klippel J: Comparison of auranofin, gold sodium thiomalate, and placebo in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a controlled clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum 26: 13031315, 1983
  • 11
    Gibbons RB: Complications of chyrostherapy: a review of recent studies. Arch Intern Med 139: 343346, 1979
  • 12
    Blodgett RC Jr, Heuer MA, Pietrusko RG: Auranofin: a unique oral chrysotherapeutic agent. Semin Arthritis Rheum 13: 255273, 1984
  • 13
    Metzger AL, Bohan A, Goldberg LS, Bluestone R, Pearson CM: Polymyositis and dermatomyositis: combined methotrexate and corticosteroid therapy. Ann Intern Med 81: 182189, 1974
  • 14
    Owen ET, Cohen ML: Methotrexate in Reiter's disease. Ann Rheum Dis 38: 4850, 1979
  • 15
    Mitchell MS, Wade ME, De Conti RC, Bertino JR, Calabresi P: Immunosuppressive effects of cytosine arabinoside and methotrexate in man. Ann Intern Med 70: 535547, 1969
  • 16
    Williams HJ, Willkens RF, Samuelson CO Jr, Alarcón GS, Guttadauria M, Yarboro C, Polisson RP, Weiner SR, Luggen ME, Billingsley LM, Dahl SL, Egger MJ, Reading JC, Ward JR: Comparison of low-dose oral pulse methotrexate and placebo in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a controlled clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum 28: 721730, 1985
  • 17
    Anderson PA, West SG, O'Dell JR, Via CS, Claypool RG, Kotzin BL: Weekly pulse methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical and immunologic effects in a randomized, double-blind study. Ann Intern Med 103: 489496, 1985
  • 18
    Weinblatt ME, Coblyn JS, Fox DA, Fraser PA, Holdsworth DE, Glass DN, Trentham DE: Efficacy of lowdose methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med 312: 818822, 1985
  • 19
    Weinstein G, Roenigk H, Maibach H, Cosmides J, Halprin K, Millard M: Psoriasis-liver-methotrexate interactions. Arch Dermatol 108: 3642, 1973
  • 20
    Nyfors A, Poulsen H: Liver biopsies from psoriatics related to methotrexate therapy. I. Findings in 123 consecutive non-methotrexate treated patients. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand [A] 84: 253261, 1976
  • 21
    Weinstein GD, Frost P: Methotrexate for psoriasis: a new therapeutic schedule. Arch Dermatol 103: 3338, 1971
  • 22
    Ropes MW, Bennett GA, Cobb S, Jacox R, Jessar RA: 1958 revision of diagnostic criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. Bull Rheum Dis 9: 175176, 1958
  • 23
    Sharp GC, Irvin WS, Tan EM, Gould RG, Holman HR: Mixed connective tissue disease: an apparently distinct rheumatic disease syndrome associated with a specific antibody to an extractable nuclear antigen (ENA). Am J Med 52: 148159, 1972
  • 24
    Steinbrocker O, Traeger CH, Batterman RC: Therapeutic criteria in rheumatoid arthritis. JAMA 140: 659662, 1949
  • 25
    The Cooperating Clinics Committee of the American Rheumatism Association: A seven-day variability study of 499 patients with peripheral rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 8: 302344, 1965
  • 26
    Pinals RS, Masi AT, Larsen RA, and the Subcommittee for Criteria of Remission in Rheumatoid Arthritis of the American Rheumatism Association Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee: Preliminary criteria for clinical remission in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 24: 13081315, 1981
  • 27
    Bowman KO, Shenton LR: Omnibus test contours for departures from normality based on b1 b2. Biometrika 62: 243250, 1975
  • 28
    Egger MJ, Coleman ML, Ward JR, Reading JC, Williams HJ: Uses and abuses of analysis of covariance in clinical trials. Controlled Clin Trials 6: 1224, 1985
  • 29
    Anderson S, Auquier A, Hauck WW, Oakes D, Vandaele W, Weisberg HI: Statistical Methods for Comparative Studies. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1980
  • 30
    Williams HJ, Ward JR, Samuelson CO Jr, Willkens RF, Alarcón GS, Guttadauria M, Yarboro C, Polisson RP, Szydlo L, Luggen ME, Billingsley LM, Dahl SL: Methotrexate and placebo therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology 9: 174189, 1985
  • 31
    Csuka ME, Carrera GF, McCarty DJ: Treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis with combined cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, and hydroxychloroquine: a follow-up study. JAMA 255: 23152319, 1986
  • 32
    Biro JA, Segal AM, Mackenzie AH, Mazanec DJ, Wilke WS: The combination of methotrexate and azathioprine for resistant rheumatoid arthritis (abstract). Arthritis Rheum 30 (suppl 4): S18, 1987
  • 33
    Dawes PT, Sheeran TP, Fowler PD, Shadforth MF: Improving the response to gold or d-penicillamine by addition of sulphasalazine: a pilot study in 25 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 5: 151153, 1987
  • 34
    Farr M, Kitas G, Bacon PA: Sulphasalazine in rheumatoid arthritis: combination therapy with d-penicillamine or sodium aurothiomalate. Clin Rheumatol 7: 242248, 1988
  • 35
    Brawer AE: The combined use of oral methotrexate and intramuscular gold in rheumatoid arthritis (abstract). Arthritis Rheum 31 (suppl 1): R10, 1988
  • 36
    Shiroky JB, Watts CS, Neville C: Combination methotrexate and sulfasalazine in the management of rheumatoid arthritis: case observations. Arthritis Rheum 32: 11601164, 1989
  • 37
    Sievers K, Hurri L: Combined therapy of rheumatoid arthritis with gold and chloroquine. Acta Rheumatol Scand 9: 4855, 1963
  • 38
    Martin M, Dixon J, Hickling P, Bird H, Golding J, Wright V: A combination of d-penicillamine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (abstract). Ann Rheum Dis 41: 208, 1982
  • 39
    Bitter T: Combined disease-modifying chemotherapy for intractable rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheum Dis 10: 417428, 1984
  • 40
    Butler D, Tiliakos N: Low-dose cytotoxic drug combination therapy in intractable rheumatoid arthritis (abstract). Arthritis Rheum 28 (suppl): S15, 1985
  • 41
    Tiliakos NA: Low-dose cytotoxic drug combination therapy in intractable rheumatoid arthritis: two years later (abstract). Arthritis Rheum 29 (suppl): S79, 1986
  • 42
    Taggart AJ, Hill J, Astbury C, Dixon JS, Bird HA Wright V: Sulphasalazine alone or in combination with d-penicillamine in rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 26: 3236, 1987
  • 43
    Walters MT, Cawley MID: Combined suppressive drug treatment in severe refractory rheumatoid disease: an analysis of the relative effects of parenteral methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide, and sodium aurothiomalate. Ann Rheum Dis 47: 924929, 1988
  • 44
    Gibson T, Emery P, Armstrong RD, Crisp AJ, Panayi GS: Combined d-penicillamine and chloroquine treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a comparative study. Br J Rheumatol 26: 279284, 1987
  • 45
    Bunch TW, O'Duffy JD, Tompkins RB, O'Fallon WM: Controlled trial of hydroxychloroquine and D-penicillamine singly and in combination in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 27: 267276, 1984
  • 46
    McKenna F, Hopkins R, Hinchcliffe KP, Bird HA Wright V: Gold and penicillamine, alone and in combination in active rheumatoid arthritis (abstract), sixteenth International Congress of Rheumatology. Sydney, May 1985
  • 47
    Scott DL, Dawes PT, Tunn E, Fowler PD, Shadforth MF, Fisher J, Clarke S, Collins M, Jones P, Popert AJ, Bacon PA: Combination therapy with gold and hydroxychloroquine in rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Br J Rheumatol 28: 128133, 1989
  • 48
    Luthra HS, the Midwest Cooperative Rheumatic Disease Study Group: Double-blind study comparing auranofin and hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination in rheumatoid arthritis (abstract). Arthritis Rheum 33 (suppl 9): S25, 1990
  • 49
    Paulus HE: The use of combinations of disease modifying antirheumatic agents in rheumatoid arthritis Arthritis Rheum 33: 113120, 1990
  • 50
    Boers M, Ramsden M: Long acting drug combinations in rheumatoid arthritis: a formal overview. J Rheumatol 18: 316324, 1991
  • 51
    López-Mèndez A, Daniel WW, Reading JC, Ward JR Alarcón GS: Radiological assessment of disease progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients from the randomized clinical trial of methotrexate, oral gold or combination (abstract). Arthritis Rheum 33 (suppl 90 S40, 1990
  • 52
    Weinblatt ME, Kaplan H, Germain BF, Merriman RC Solomon SD, Wall B, Anderson L, Block S, Irby R Wolfe F, Gall E, Torretti D, Biundo J, Small R, Coblyn J, Polisson R: Low-dose methotrexate compared with auranofin in adult rheumatoid arthritis: a thirty-six-week, double-blind trial. Arthritis Rheum 33: 330338 1990