• 1
    Jorgenson TG: Drug consumption before perforation of peptic ulcer. Br J Surg 64: 247249, 1977
  • 2
    Thompson MR: Indomethacin and perforated duodenal ulcer. Br Med J 280: 448, 1980
  • 3
    Somerville K, Faulkner G, Langman M: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bleeding peptic ulcer. Lancet I: 462464, 1986
  • 4
    Henry DA, Johnston A, Dobson A, Duggan J: Fatal peptic ulcer complications and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin and corticosteroids. Br Med J 295: 12271229, 1987
  • 5
    Committee on the Safety of Medicines Update: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and serious gastrointestinal adverse reactions-2. Br Med J 292: 11901191, 1986
  • 6
    Maratka Z: Terminology, definitions and diagnostic criteria in digestive endoscopy. Scand J Gastroenterol 19 (suppl 103): 21, 22, 34, 35, 1984
  • 7
    Feinstein AR: Clinical biostatistics. XX. The epidemiclogic trohoc, the ablative risk ratio, and ‘retrospective’ research. Clin Pharmacol Ther 14: 291307, 1973
  • 8
    O'Hagan J, Whiteside E, Bieder L: Handbook on Alcoholism for Medical Practitioners. Wellington, New Zealand, Alcoholic Liquor Advisory Council, 1982
  • 9
    Breslow NE, Day NE: Statistical Methods in Cancer Research. Vol. 1 (The Analysis of Case-Control Studies). IARC scientific publications no. 32 WHO. Lyon International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1980
  • 10
    Schlesselman JJ: Case-Control Studies: Design, Conduct, Analysis. Oxford Oxford University Press, 1982
  • 11
    DixonWJ, BrownMB EngelmanLR JennrichI editors: BMDP Statistical Software Manual. Vol. 2. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1990
  • 12
    Hopkins A, Hornung R: New 2L Features with Illustrative Examples: BMDP Technical Report no. 80. Los Angeles, BMDP Statistical Software, 1985
  • 13
    Griffin MR, Ray WA, Schaffner W: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and death from peptic ulcer in elderly persons. Ann Intern Med 109: 359363, 1988
  • 14
    Carson JL, Strom BL, Soper KA, West SL, Morse ML: The association of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Arch Intern Med 147: 8588, 1987
  • 15
    Beard K, Walker AM, Perera DR, Jick H: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hospitalization for gastroesophageal bleeding in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 147: 16211623, 1987
  • 16
    Faulkner G, Prichard P, Somerville K, Langman MJS: Aspirin and bleeding peptic ulceration in the elderly. Br Med J 297: 13111313, 1988
  • 17
    McIntosh JH, Byth K, Piper DW: Environmental factors in aetiology of chronic gastric ulcer: a case control study of exposure variables before the first symptoms. Gut 26: 789798, 1985
  • 18
    Rossi AC, Hsu JP, Faich GA: Ulcerogenicity of piroxicam: an analysis of spontaneously reported data. Br Med J 294: 147150, 1987
  • 19
    Laporte J-R, Carné X, Vidal X, Moreno V, Juan J: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in relation to previous use of analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Lancet 337: 8589, 1991
  • 20
    Avila MH, Walker AM, Romieu I, Spiegelman DL, Perera DR, Jick H: Choice of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in persons treated for dyspepsia. Lancet II: 556559, 1988
  • 21
    Carson JL, Strom BL, Morse ML, West SL, Soper KA, Stolley PD, Jones JK: The relative gastrointestinal toxicity of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Arch Intern Med 147: 10541059, 1987
  • 22
    Collier D St J, Pain JA: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and peptic ulcer perforation. Gut 26: 359363, 1985