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  • 1
    Gotzsche PC: Sensitivity of effect variables in rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis of 130 placebo controlled NSAID trials. J Clin Epidemiol 43: 13131318, 1990
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    Lomas J, Anderson G, Enkin M, Vayda E, Roberts R, MacKinnon B: The role of evidence in the consensus process. JAMA 259: 30013005, 1988
  • 3
    Anderson JJ, Felson DT, Meenan RF, Williams HJ: Which traditional measures should be used in rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials? Arthritis Rheum 32: 10931099, 1989
  • 4
    Bull BS, Farr M, Meyer PJ, Westengard JC, Bacon PA, Stuart J: Efficacy of tests used to monitor rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet I: 965967, 1989
  • 5
    Scott DL, Spector TD, Pullar T, McConkey B: What should we hope to achieve when treating rheumatoid arthritis? Ann Rheum Dis 48: 256261, 1989
  • 6
    Van der Heijde DMFM, van Hof MA, van Riel PLCM, van Theunisse LAM, van Lubberts EW, van Leeuwen MA, Rijswijk van MH, Putte van de LBA: Judging disease activity in clinical practice in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 49: 919920, 1990
  • 7
    Dixon JS, Hayes S, Constable PDL, Bird HA: What are the 'best' measurements for monitoring patients during short-term second-line therapy? Br J Rheumatol 27: 3743, 1988
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    Technology Subcommittee of the Working Group of Critical Care: Hemodynamic monitoring: a technology assessment. Can Med Assoc J 145: 114121, 1991
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    McKee M, Priest P, Ginzer M, Black N: Can out-of-hours work by junior doctors in obstetrics be reduced? Br J Obstet Gynaecol 99: 197202, 1992
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    Liang MH, Katz JN, Phillips C, Sledge C, Cats-Baril W: The total hip arthroplasty outcome evaluation form of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: results of a nominal group process. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 73: 639646, 1991
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    Tugwell P, Bombardier C: A methodologic framework for developing and selecting endpoints in clinical trials. J Rheumatol 9: 758762, 1982
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    Kolodny AL: Two double blind trials of diclofenac sodium with aspirin and with naproxen in the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 15: 12051211, 1988
  • 13
    Pincus T: New concepts in prognosis of rheumatic diseases for the 1990s, Prognosis in the Rheumatic Diseases. Edited by NBellamy. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic, 1990
  • 14
    Van der Heijde DMFM, van Riel PLCM, van Rijswijk MH, van de Putte LBA: Influence of prognostic features on the final outcome in rheumatoid arthritis: a review of the literature. Semin Arthritis Rheum 17: 284292, 1988
  • 15
    Wolfe F: Rheumatoid arthritis, Prognosis in the Rheumatic Diseases. Edited by NBellamy. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic, 1990
  • 16
    Van de Heide A, Jacobs WGJ, Dinant HJ, Bijlsma WJJ: The impact of endpoint measures in rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials. Semin Arthritis Rheum 21: 287294, 1992
  • 17
    Delbecq AL, van de Ven AH, Gustafson DH: Group Techniques for Program Planning: A Guide to Nominal Group and Delphi Process. Glenview, IL, Scott, Foresman, 1975
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    Herbert TT, Yost EB: A comparison of decision quality under nominal and interacting consensus group format: the case of the structured problem. Decis Sci 10: 358370, 1979
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    Stephenson BY, Michaelson LK, Franklin SG: An empirical test of the nominal group technique in state solar energy planning. Group Organ Stud 7: 320334, 1982
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    Van de Ven AH, Delbecq AL: The effectiveness of nominal, Delphi, and interacting group decision making process. Acad Manage J 17: 605621, 1974
  • 21
    Spiegel JS, Paulus HE, Ward NB, Spiegel TM, Leake B, Kane RL: What are we measuring? An examination of walk time and grip strength. J Rheumatol 14: 8086, 1987
  • 22
    Wolfe F, Cathey MA: The assessment and prediction of functional disability in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 18: 12981306, 1991
  • 23
    Pincus T, Callahan LF, Vaughn WK: Questionnaire, walking time and button test measures of functional capacity as predictive markers for mortality in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 14: 240251, 1987
  • 24
    Kazis LE, Anderson JJ, Meenan RF: Health status as a predictor of mortality in rheumatoid arthritis: a five-year study. J Rheumatol 17: 609613, 1990
  • 25
    Mitchell DM, Spitz PW, Young DY, Bloch DA, Mc-Shane DJ, Fries JF: Survival, prognosis, and causes of death in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 29: 706714, 1986
  • 26
    Allebeck P, Ahlbom A, Allander E: Increased mortality among persons with rheumatoid arthritis, but where RA does not appear on death certificate: eleven year follow-up of an epidemiological study. Scand J Rheumatol 10: 301306, 1981
  • 27
    Rasker JJ, Cosh JA: Cause and age of death in a prospective study of 100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 40: 115120, 1981
  • 28
    Wolfe F, Hawley DJ, Cathey MA: Clinical and health status measures over time: prognosis and outcome assessment in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 18: 12901297, 1991
  • 29
    Leigh JP, Fries JF: Mortality predictors among 263 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 18: 13071311, 1991
  • 30
    Wolfe F, Kleinheksal SM, Cathey MA, Hawley DHJ, Spitz P: Antecedents of morality in rheumatoid arthritis: a study of 1405 patients with RA in a community setting (abstract). Arthritis Rheum 34 (suppl 9): S48, 1991
  • 31
    Pincus T, Callahan LF, Sale WG, Brooks AL, Payne LE, Vaughn WK: Severe functional declines, work disability, and increased mortality in seventy-five rheumatoid arthritis patients studied over nine years. Arthritis Rheum 27: 864872, 1984
  • 32
    Scott DL, Dawes PT, Fowler PD, Grindulis KA, Shadforth M, Bacon PA: Anti-rheumatic drugs and joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis. Q J Med 54: 4959, 1985
  • 33
    Mottonen TT: Prediction of erosiveness and rate of development of new erosions in early rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 47: 648653, 1988
  • 34
    Fuchs HA, Callahan LF, Kaye JJ, Brooks RH, Nance EP, Pincus T: Radiographic and joint count findings of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis: related and unrelated findings. Arthritis Rheum 31: 4451, 1988
  • 35
    Pincus T, Callahan LF, Brooks RH, Fuchs HA, Olsen NJ, Kaye JJ: Self-report questionnaire scores in rheumatoid arthritis compared with traditional physical, radiographic, and laboratory measures. Ann Intern Med 110: 259266, 1989
  • 36
    Van der Heijde DMFM, van 't Hof MA, van Riel PLCM, van Leeuwen MA, van Rijswijk MH, van de Putte LBA: A comparison of validity of single variables and composed indices for measuring disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 51: 177181, 1992
  • 37
    Dawes PT, Fowler PD, Clarke S, Fisher J, Lawton A, Shadforth MF: Rheumatoid arthritis: treatment which controls the C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate reduces radiological progression. Br J Rheumatol 25: 4449, 1986
  • 38
    Bombardier C, Raboud J, and The Auranofin Cooperating Group: A comparison of health-related quality-of-life measures for rheumatoid arthritis research. Controlled Clin Trials 12: 243S256S, 1991
  • 39
    Van der Heijde DMFM, van Riel PLCM, van de Putte LBA: Sensitivity of a Dutch health status questionnaire in a trial comparing hydroxychloroquine vs sulphasalazine. Scand J Rheumatol 19 (suppl): 407412, 1990
  • 40
    Meenan RF, Anderson JJ, Kazis LE, Egger MJ, Altz-Smith M, Samuelson CO Jr, Willkens RF, Solsky MA, Hayes SP, Blocka KL, Weinstein A, Guttadauria M, Kaplan SB, Klippel J: Outcome assessment in clinical trials: evidence for the sensitivity of a health status measure. Arthritis Rheum 27: 13441352, 1984
  • 41
    Hawley DJ, Wolfe F: Sensitivity to change of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and other clinical and health status measures in rheumatoid arthritis: results of short term clinical trials and observational studies versus long term observational studies. Arthritis Care Res 5: 130136, 1992
  • 42
    Klinkhoff AV, Bellamy N, Bombardier C, Carette S, Chalmers A, Esdaile JM, Goldsmith C, Tugwell P, Smyth HA, Buchanan WW: An experiment in reducing interobserver variability of the examination for joint tenderness. J Rheumatol 15: 492494, 1988
  • 43
    Bellamy N, Anastassiades TP, Buchanan WW, Davis P, Lee P, McCain GA, Wells GA, Campbell J: Rheumatoid arthritis antirheumatic drug trials. 1. Effects of standardization procedures on observer dependent outcome measures. J Rheumatol 18: 18931900, 1991
  • 44
    Thompson PW, Hart LE, Goldsmith CH, Spector TD, Bell MJ, Ramsden MF: Comparison of four articular indices for use in clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis: patient, order and observer variation. J Rheumatol 18: 661665, 1991
  • 45
    Paulus HE, Scott DL, Edmonds JP: Classification of antirheumatic drugs. Arthritis Rheum 35: 364365, 1992
  • 46
    Leigh JP, Fries JF: Predictors of disability in a longitudinal sample of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 51: 581587, 1992
  • 47
    The Cooperating Clinics Committee of the American Rheumatism Association: A seven-day variability study of 499 patients with peripheral rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 8: 302334, 1965
  • 48
    Ritchie DM, Boyle JA, McInnes JM, Jasani MK, Dalakos TG, Grieveson P, Buchanan WW: Clinical studies with an articular index for the assessment of joint tenderness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Q J Med 37: 393406, 1968
  • 49
    Egger MJ, Huth DA, Ward JR, Reading JC, Williams HJ: Reduced joint count indices in the evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 28: 613619, 1985
  • 50
    Langley GB, Sheppard H: Problems associated with pain measurement in arthritis: comparison of the visual analogue and verbal rating scales. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2: 231234, 1984
  • 51
    Anderson JJ, Firschein HE, Meenan RF: Sensitivity of a health status measure to short-term clinical changes in arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 32: 844850, 1989
  • 52
    Meenan RF, Gertman PM, Mason JH: Measuring health status in arthritis: the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales. Arthritis Rheum 23: 146152, 1980
  • 53
    Chambers LW, MacDonald LA, Tugwell P, Buchanan WW, Kraag G: The McMaster Health Index Questionnaire as a measure of quality of life for patients with rheumatoid disease. J Rheumatol 9: 790784, 1982
  • 54
    Tugwell P, Bombardier C, Buchanan W, Goldsmith C, Grace E, Bennett KJ, Williams HJ, Egger M, Alarcon GS, Guttadauria M, Yarboro C, Polisson RP, Szydlo L, Luggen ME, Billingsley LM, Ward JR, Marks C: Methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis: impact on quality of life assessed by traditional standard-item and individualized patient preference health status questionnaires. Arch Intern Med 150: 5962, 1990
  • 55
    Tugwell P, Bombardier C, Buchanan WW, Goldsmith CH, Grace E, Hanna B: The MACTAR patient preference disability questionnaire: an individualized functional priority approach for assessing improvement in physical disability in clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 14: 446451, 1987
  • 56
    Bombardier C, Ware J, Russell IJ, Larson M, Chalmers A, Read JL: Auranofin therapy and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Med 81: 565578, 1986