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  • 1
    Paulus HE, Scott DL, Edmonds JP: Classification of antirheumatic drugs: a new proposal. Arthritis Rheum 35: 364365, 1992
  • 2
    Scott DL, Coulton BL, Symmons DPM, Propert AJ: Long term outcome of treating rheumatoid arthritis: results after 20 years. Lancet I: 11081111, 1987
  • 3
    Pinals RS: Survival in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 30: 473475, 1987
  • 4
    Pincus T, Callahan LF: Taking mortality in rheumatoid arthritis seriously: predictive markers, socioeconomic status and comorbidity. J Rheumatol 13: 841845, 1986
  • 5
    Wilske KR, Healey LA: Remodeling the pyramid: a concept whose time has come. J Rheumatol 16: 565567, 1989
  • 6
    Borg G, Allander E, Lund B, Berg E, Brodin U, Pettersson H, Trang L: Auranofin improves outcome in early rheumatoid arthritis: results from a 2-year, double blind, placebo controlled study. J Rheumatol 15: 17471754, 1988
  • 7
    Johnsen V, Borg G, Trang LE, Berg E, Brodin U: Auranofin (SK&F) in early rheumatoid arthritis: results from a 24-month double-blind placebo-controlled study: effect on clinical and biochemical assessments. Scand J Rheumatol 18: 251260, 1989
  • 8
    Svartz N: Salazopyrin, a new sulfanilamide preparation. A. Therapeutic results in rheumatic polyarthritis. B. Therapeutic results in ulcerative colitis. C. Toxic manifestations in treatment with sulfanilamide preparation. Acta Med Scand 110: 577598, 1942
  • 9
    Pullar T, Hunter JA, Capell HA: Sulphasalazine in rheumatoid arthritis: a double blind comparison of sulphasalazine with placebo and sodium aurothiomalate. Br Med J [Clin Res] 287: 11021104, 1983
  • 10
    Pinals RS, Kaplan SB, Lawson JG, Hepburn B: Sulfasalazine in rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 29: 14271434, 1986
  • 11
    Williams HJ, Ward JR, Dahl SL, Clegg DO, Willkens RF, Oglesby T, Weisman MH, Schlegel S, Michaels RM, Luggen ME, Polisson RP, Singer JZ, Kantor M, Shiroky JB, Small RE, Gomez MI, Reading JC, Egger MJ: A controlled trial comparing sulfasalazine, gold sodium thiomalate, and placebo in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 31: 702713, 1988
  • 12
    Neumann VC, Grindulis KA, Hubball, McConkey B, Wright V: Comparison between penicillamine and sulphasalazine in rheumatoid arthritis: Leeds-Birmingham trial. Br Med J [Clin Res] 287: 10991102, 1983
  • 13
    Nuver-Zwart IH, van Riel PLCM, van de Putte LBA, Gribnau FWJ: A double blind comparative study of sulphasalazine and hydroxychloroquine in rheumatoid arthritis: evidence of an earlier effect of sulphasalazine. Ann Rheum Dis 48: 389395, 1989
  • 14
    Wijnands MJH, van Hof MA, van Leeuwen MA, van Rijswijle MH, van de Putte LBA, van Riel PLCM: Long-term second-line treatment: a prospective drug survival study. Br J Rheumatol 31: 253258, 1992
  • 15
    Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Meenan RF: The comparative efficacy and toxicity of second-line drugs in rheumatoid arthritis: results of two metaanalysis. Arthritis Rheum 33: 14491461, 1990
  • 16
    Porter D, Madhok R, Hunter JA, Capell HA: Prospective trial comparing the use of sulphasalazine and auranofin as second line drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 51: 461464, 1992
  • 17
    Bax DE, Amos RS: Sulphasalazine: a safe, effective agent for prolonged control of rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison with sodium aurothiomalate. Ann Rheum Dis 44: 194198, 1985
  • 18
    Situnayake RD, Grindulis KA, McConkey B: Long term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with sulphasalazine, gold, or penicillamine: a comparison using life-table methods. Ann Rheum Dis 46: 177183, 1987
  • 19
    Capell HA, Marabani M, Madhok R, Torley H, Hunter JA: Degree and extent of response to sulphasalazine or penicillamine therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: results from a routine clinical environment over a two-year period. Q J Med 75: 335344, 1990
  • 20
    Situnayake RD, McConkey B: Clinical and laboratory effects of prolonged therapy with sulphasalazine, gold or penicillamine: the effects of disease duration on treatment response. J Rheumatol 17: 12681273, 1990
  • 21
    Möttönen T: Prediction of erosiveness and rate of development of new erosions in early rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 47: 648653, 1988
  • 22
    Fuchs HA, Kaye JJ, Callahan LF, Nance EP, Pincus T: Evidence of significant radiographic damage in rheumatoid arthritis within the first 2 years of disease. J Rheumatol 16: 585591, 1989
  • 23
    Eberhardt KB, Rydgren LC, Pettersson H, Wollheim FA: Early rheumatoid arthritis: onset, course, and outcome over 2 years. Rheumatol Int 10: 135142, 1990
  • 24
    Van der Heijde DMFM, van Leeuwen MA, van Riel PLCM, Koster AM, van't Hof MA, van Rijswijk MH, van de Putte LBA: Biannual radiographic assessments of hands and feet in a three-year prospective followup of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 35: 2634, 1992
  • 25
    Paimela L: The radiographic criterion in the 1987 revised criteria for rheumatoid arthritis: reassessment in a prospective study of early disease. Arthritis Rheum 35: 255258, 1992
  • 26
    Pullar T, Hunter JA, Capell HA: Effect of sulphasalazine on the radiological progression of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 46: 398402, 1987
  • 27
    Van der Heijde DM, van Riel PL, Nuver-Zwart IH, Gribnau FW, van de Putte LB: Effects of hydroxychloroquine and sulphasalazine on progression of joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet I:10361038, 1989
  • 28
    Ropes MW: Diagnostic criteria for rheumatoid arthritis: 1958 revision. Ann Rheum Dis 18: 4953, 1959
  • 29
    Ritchie DM, Boyle JA, McInnes JM, Jasani MK, Dalakos TG, Grieveson P, Buchanan WW: Clinical studies with an articular index for the assessment of joint tenderness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Q J Med 37: 393406, 1968
  • 30
    Steinbrocker O, Traeger CH, Batterman RC: Therapeutic criteria in rheumatoid arthritis. JAMA 140: 659662, 1949
  • 31
    Möttönen T, Hannonen P, Toivanen J, Rekonen A, Oka M: Value of joint scintigraphy in the prediction of erosiveness in early rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 47: 183189, 1988
  • 32
    Pinals RS, Masi AT, Larsen RA, Subcommittee for Criteria of Remission in Rheumatoid Arthritis of the American Rheumatism Association Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee: Preliminary criteria for clinical remission in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 24: 13081315, 1981
  • 33
    Sinclair R, Duthie J: Salazopyrin in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 8: 226231, 1949
  • 34
    Hench PS, Kendall EC, Slocumb CH, Polley HF: The effect of a hormone of the adrenal cortex (17-hydroxy-11-dehydrocorticosterone: Compound E) and of pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone on rheumatoid arthritis. Mayo Clin Proc 24: 181197, 1949
  • 35
    McConkey B, Amos RS, Butler EP: Salazopyrin in rheumatoid arthritis. Agents Actions 8: 438441, 1978
  • 36
    McConkey B, Amos R, Durham S, Forster PJG, Hubball S, Walsh L: Sulphasalazine in rheumatoid arthritis. Br Med J [Clin Res] 280: 442444, 1980
  • 37
    Pullar T, Hunter JA, Capell HA: Which component of sulphasalazine is active in rheumatoid arthritis? Br Med J [Clin Res] 290: 15351538, 1985
  • 38
    Kanerud L, Hafström I, Ringertz B: Effect of sulphasalazine and sulphapyridine on neutrophil superoxide production: role of cytosolic free calcium. Ann Rheum Dis 49: 296300, 1990
  • 39
    Carlin G, Djursäter R, Smedegård G: Sulphasalazine inhibition of human granulocyte activation by inhibition of second messenger compounds. Ann Rheum Dis 51: 12301236, 1992
  • 40
    Williams JG, Hallett MB: Effect of sulphasalazine and its active metabolite 5-amino-salicylic acid, on toxic oxygen metabolite production by neutrophils. Gut 30: 15811587, 1989
  • 41
    Madhok R, Wijelath E, Smith J, Watson J, Sturrock RD, Capell HA: Is the beneficial effect of sulfasalazine due to inhibition of synovial neovascularization? J Rheumatol 18: 199202, 1991
  • 42
    Aparicio-Pages MN, Vespaget HW, Hafkenscheid JCM, Crama-Bohbouth GE, Peña AS, Weterman IT, Lamers CBHW: Inhibition of cell mediated cytotoxicity by sulphasalazine: effect of in vivo treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid and sulphasalazine on in vitro natural killer cell activity. Gut 31: 10301032, 1990
  • 43
    Porter DR, Capell HA: The use of sulphasalazine as a disease modifying antirheumatic drug, Bailliere's Clinical Rheumatology. Edited by PBrooks. London, Bailliere Tindall, 1990
  • 44
    Young A, Bielawska C, Corbett M, Roitt I: A prospective study of early onset rheumatoid arthritis over fifteen years: prognostic features and outcome. Clin Rheumatol 6 (suppl 2): 1219, 1987
  • 45
    Davis MJ, Dawes PT, Fowler PD, Clarke S, Fisher J, Shadforth MF: Should disease-modifying agents be used in mild rheumatoid arthritis? Br J Rheumatol 30: 451454, 1991
  • 46
    Isdale A, Wright V: Seronegative arthritis and the bowel, Bailliere's Clinical Rheumatology. Edited by PJRooney. London, Bailliere Tindall, 1989
  • 47
    Brook A, Corbett M: Radiographic changes in early rheumatoid disease. Ann Rheum Dis 36: 7173, 1977
  • 48
    Chang JS, Quinn JM, Demaziere A, Bulstrode CJ, Francis MJ, Duthie RB, Athanasou NA: Bone resorption by cells isolated from rheumatoid synovium. Ann Rheum Dis 51: 12231229, 1992
  • 49
    Ianuzzi L, Dawson N, Zein N, Kusner I: Does drug therapy slow radiographic deterioration in rheumatoid arthritis? N Engl J Med 309: 10231028, 1983
  • 50
    Amos RS, Pullar T, Bax DE, Situnayake D, Capell HA, McConkey B: Sulphasalazine for rheumatoid arthritis: toxicity in 774 patients monitored for one to 11 years. Br Med J [Clin Res] 293: 420423, 1986
  • 51
    Bax DE, Greaves MS, Amos RS: Sulphasalazine for rheumatoid arthritis: relationship between dose, acetylator phenotype and response to treatment. Br J Rheumatol 25: 282284, 1986
  • 52
    Pullar T, Hunter JA, Capell HA: Effect of acetylator phenotype on efficacy and toxicity of sulphasalazine in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 44: 831837, 1985
  • 53
    Kitas GD, Farr M, Waterhouse L, Bacon PA: Influence of acetylator status of sulphasalazine efficacy and toxicity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 21: 220225, 1992