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  • 1
    Felts W, Yelin E: The economic impact of the rheumatic diseases in the United States. J Rheumatol 16: 867884, 1989
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    Yelin EH, Felts WR: A summary of the impact of musculoskeletal conditions in the United States. Arthritis Rheum 33: 750755, 1990
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    Meenan RF, Yelin EH, Henke CJ, Curtis DL, Epstein WV: The costs of rheumatoid arthritis: a patient-oriented study of chronic disease costs. Arthritis Rheum 21: 827833, 1978
  • 4
    Lubeck DP, Spitz PW, Fries JF, Wolfe F, Mitchell DM, Roth SH: A multicenter study of annual health service utilization and costs in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 29: 488493, 1986
  • 5
    Helewa A, Bombardier C, Goldsmith CH, Menchions B, Smythe HA: Cost-effectiveness of inpatient and intensive outpatient treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 32: 15051514, 1989
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    Eisenburg JM: Clinical economics: a guide to the economic analysis of clinical practices. JAMA 262: 28792886, 1989
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    Finkler SA: The distinction between costs and charges. Ann Intern Med 96: 102109, 1982
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    Rice DP, Hodgson TA, Kopstein AN: The economic costs of illness: a replication and update. Health Care Financing Rev 7: 6180, 1985
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    Hodgson TA, Meiners MR: Cost-of-illness methodology: a guide to current practices and procedures. Milbank Memorial Fund Q 60: 429462, 1982
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    Scitovsky AA: Estimating the direct costs of illness. Milbank Memorial Fund Q 60: 463491, 1982
  • 11
    Lubeck DP: Health care economics and policy. Curr Opin Rheumatol 3: 286290, 1991
  • 12
    Tan EM, Cohen AS, Fries JF, Masi AT, McShane DJ, Rothfield NF, Schaller JG, Talal N, Winchester RJ: The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 25: 12711277, 1982
  • 13
    Meenan RF: New approaches to outcome assessment: the AIMS questionnaire for arthritis. Adv Intern Med 31: 167186, 1986
  • 14
    Esdaile JM, Sampalis JS, Lacaille D, Danoff DS: The relationship of socioeconomic status to subsequent health status in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 31: 423427, 1988
  • 15
    Joyce K, Berkebile C, Hastings C, Yarboro C, Yocum D: Health status and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Care Res 2: 6569, 1989
  • 16
    Cohen S, Mermelstein R, Kamarck T, Hoberman HM: Measuring the functional components of social support, Social Support: Theory, Research and Applications. Edited by IGSarason, BRSarason. The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff, 1985
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    Detsky AS, Stacey SR, Bombardier C: The effectiveness of a regulatory strategy in containing hospital costs: the Ontario experience, 1967–1981. N Engl J Med 309: 151159, 1983
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    Zowall H, Fraser RD, Gilmore N, Deutsch A, Grover S: HIV antibody screening among immigrants: a cost-benefit analysis. Can Med Assoc J 143: 101107, 1990
  • 19
    Drummond MF, Stoddart GL, Torrance GW: Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1987
  • 20
    Detsky AS, O'Rourke K, Naylor CD, Stacey SR, Kitchens JM: Containing Ontario's hospital costs under universal insurance in the 1980's: what was the record? Can Med Assoc J 142: 565572, 1990
  • 21
    Statistics Canada: Total Operating Expenses per Patient-Day, Reporting Hospitals, by Type and Size of Hospital: Canada and Provinces, 1987–88. Vol. 1. No. 1. Ottawa, Hospital Statistics Preliminary Annual Report, 1989
  • 22
    Carmichael D: Case Weighting Methods: A Review by the HMRI Database Committee, 1988
  • 23
    Statistiques: Med-Écho: 1984–85 á 1988–1989: Hospitalisation Pour les Soins de Courte Durée au Québec. Québec, Régie de L'assurance-Maladie du Québec, 1990
  • 24
    Statistiques: Statistiques Annuelles: Nombre de Services Médicaux Selon le Sexe et le Groupe D'ǎge des Bénéficiaries et Selon le Type de Service, Rénumeration à l'acte-Médecine et Chirugie. Québec, Régie de L'assurance-Maladie du Québec, 1990
  • 25
    Health and Welfare Canada: The Health of Canadians: Report of the Canada Health Survey. Ottawa, 1981
  • 26
    Liang MH, Partridge AJ, Daltroy LH, Straaton KV, Galper SR, Holman HR: Strategies for reducing excess morbidity and mortality in blacks with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 34: 11871196, 1991
  • 27
    Pistiner M, Wallace DJ, Neissim S, Metzger AL, Klinenberg JR: Lupus erythematosus in the 1980's: a survey of 570 patients. Semin Arthritis Rheum 21: 5564, 1991
  • 28
    Reveille JD, Bartolucci A, Alarcón GS: Prognosis in systemic lupus erythematosus: negative impact of increasing age at onset, black race, and thrombocytopenia, as well as causes of death. Arthritis Rheum 33: 3748, 1990
  • 29
    Gunderson M: Employment Income: 1986 Census of Canada. Ottawa, Canadian Government Publishing Centre, 1989
  • 30
    Henke CJ, Epstein WV: Practice variation in rheumatologists' encounters with their patients who have rheumatoid arthritis. Med Care 29: 799812, 1991
  • 31
    Fuchs VR, Hahn JS: How does Canada do it? A comparison of expenditures for physicians' services in the United States and Canada. N Engl J Med 323: 884890, 1990
  • 32
    Redelmeier DA, Fuchs VR: Hospital expenditures in the United States and Canada. N Engl J Med 328: 772778, 1993
  • 33
    Wolfe F, Kleinheksel SM, Spitz PW, Lubeck DP, Fries JF, Young DY, Mitchell D, Roth S: A multicenter study of hospitalization in rheumatoid arthritis: effect of health care system, severity, and regional difference. J Rheumatol 13: 277284, 1986
  • 34
    Cassel J: The contribution of the social environment to host resistance. Am J Epidemiol 104: 107123, 1976
  • 35
    Bruhn JG, Philips BU: Measuring social support: a synthesis of current approaches. J Behav Med 7: 151169, 1984
  • 36
    Gottlieb BH: Social networks and social support: an overview of research, practice, and policy implications. Health Educ Q 12: 522, 1985
  • 37
    Wethington E, Kessler RC: Perceived support, received support, and adjustment to stressful life events. J Health Soc Behav 27: 7889, 1986
  • 38
    Goodenow C, Reisine ST, Grady KE: Quality of social support and associated social and psychological functioning in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Health Psychol 9: 266284, 1990
  • 39
    Weinberger M, Hiner S, Tierney W: Improving functional status in patients with osteoarthritis: the effect of social support (abstract). Arthritis Rheum 29 (suppl 4): S155, 1986
  • 40
    Weinberger M, Hiner SL, Tierney WM: Improving functional status in arthritis: the effect of social support. Soc Sci Med 23: 899904, 1986
  • 41
    Weinberger M, Tierney WM, Booher P, Katz BP: Can the provision of information to patients with osteoarthritis improve functional status? A randomized, controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 32: 15771583, 1989
  • 42
    Weinberger M, Tierney WM, Booher P, Katz BP: The impact of increased contact on psychosocial outcomes in patients with osteoarthritis: a randomized, controlled trial. J Rheumatol 18: 849854, 1991
  • 43
    Lorig K, Holman H: Arthritis self-management studies: a twelve-year review. Health Educ Q 20: 1728, 1993
  • 44
    Holman H, Mazonson P, Lorig K: Health education for self-management has significant early and sustained benefits in chronic arthritis. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 102: 204208, 1989
  • 45
    Lorig K, Holman HR: Long-term outcomes of an arthritis self-management study: effects of reinforcement efforts. Soc Sci Med 29: 221224, 1989
  • 46
    Lorig K, Seleznick M, Lubeck D, Ung E, Chastain RL, Holman HR: The beneficial outcomes of the arthritis self-management course are not adequately explained by behavior change. Arthritis Rheum 32: 9195, 1989
  • 47
    Lorig K, Konkol L, Gonzalez V: Arthritis patient education: a review of the literature. Patient Educ Counsel 10: 207252, 1987
  • 48
    Tucker M, Kirwan JR: Does patient education in rheumatoid arthritis have therapeutic potential? Ann Rheum Dis 50: 422428, 1991
  • 49
    Braden CJ, McGlone K, Pennington F: Specific psychosocial and behavioral outcomes from the systemic lupus erythematosus self-help course. Health Educ Q 20: 2941, 1993
  • 50
    Braden CJ: Patterns of change over time in learned response to chronic illness among participants in a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) self-help course. Arthritis Care Res 4: 158167, 1991