Objective. To study the long-term outcome of mothers of children with isolated congenital heart block (CHB) and to characterize the maternal autoantibody response to SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La.
Methods. A retrospective clinical study of 33 mothers a mean of 11.2 years (SD 9.2 years, range 0–32 years) after the delivery of their first child with CHB. A clinical and immunologic study of 31 of these mothers, compared with 89 healthy mothers, 45 mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 19 mothers with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS), all of whom had healthy children. The specificity of the autoantibody responses to SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using purified human recombinant antigens and affinity-purified antigens.
Results. By the time of the analysis, 2 (6%) of the 33 mothers of CHB children had died and 6 (18%) had met the criteria for SLE. As a group, mothers of CHB children had clinical and immunologic characteristics more closely related to primary SS than to SLE or any other connective tissue disease. The predominant autoantibody response was to the SS-A/Ro antigens, notably to the 52-kd SS-A/Ro protein (prevalence 97%). Compared with controls with SLE, mothers of CHB children had higher titers of antibodies to recombinant 52-kd and 60-kd SS-A/Ro proteins and to the affinity-purified SS-A/Ro antigen (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001, respectively). Compared with controls with primary SS, the autoantibody responses were similar.
Conclusion. The predominant autoimmune disorder in mothers of children with CHB is subclinical primary SS. Antibodies to SS-A/Ro appear to be a prerequisite for the development of CHB.