Translation and validation of arthritis outcome measures into spanish
Article first published online: 9 DEC 2005
Copyright © 1995 American College of Rheumatology
Arthritis & Rheumatism
Volume 38, Issue 10, pages 1429–1446, October 1995
How to Cite
González, V. M., Stewart, A., Ritter, P. L. and Lorig, K. (1995), Translation and validation of arthritis outcome measures into spanish. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 38: 1429–1446. doi: 10.1002/art.1780381010
- Issue published online: 9 DEC 2005
- Article first published online: 9 DEC 2005
- Manuscript Revised: 23 MAY 1995
- Manuscript Accepted: 23 MAY 1995
- Manuscript Received: 1 MAR 1995
- National Institute for Nursing Research. Grant Number: 1-R01-NR-03146-01
Objective. To produce Spanish versions of common arthritis outcome measures: the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) Disability Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Pain Severity Scale, the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale for Pain and Other Symptoms (with the addition of 2 new items), the Visual Analogue Pain Scale, the MOS Self-Rated Health Item, and a Physical Activities Scale that would be usable by most Hispanics living in the US. We tested these translated measures for reliability and, where appropriate, validity.
Methods. Instruments were translated and back translated by bilingual persons from 5 different countries of origin. Translators met to resolve variations in translation. The instruments were then administered to Hispanic arthritis patients in 6 geographic locations (5 in the United States and 1 in Latin America). All instruments underwent standard psychometric testing. As appropriate, the sample was stratified by level of acculturation, nation of origin, and geographic location.
Results. The translated instruments, with slight modification, met acceptable levels of reliability and validity. They are understood and easily usable by diverse Spanish-speaking populations.
Conclusion. The availability of these translated outcome measures should enable investigators to include monolingual Spanish-speakers into their studies, and should facilitate study of cross-cultural differences with respect to these specific outcomes.