• 1
    Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM: Oxidants, antioxidants and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90: 79157922, 1993
  • 2
    Frei B: Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant vitamins: mechanisms of action. Am J Med 97 (Suppl 3A): 5S13S, 1994
  • 3
    Jacques PF, Chylack LT, Taylor A: Relationships between natural antioxidants and cataract formation. In, Natural Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease. Edited by BFrei. San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 1994
  • 4
    Gaziano JM: Antioxidant vitamins and coronary artery disease risk. Am J Med 97 (Suppl 3A): 18S21S, 1994
  • 5
    Hennekens CH: Antioxidant vitamins and cancer. Am J Med 97 (Suppl 3A): 2S4S, 1994
  • 6
    Henrotin Y, Deby-Dupont G, Deby C, Franchimont P, Emerit I: Active oxygen species, articular inflammation, and cartilage damage. EXS 62: 308322, 1992
  • 7
    Blake DR, Unsworth J, Outhwaite JM, Morris CJ, Merry P, Kido BL, Ballard R, Gray L, Lunec J: Hypoxic-reperfusion injury in the inflamed human. Lancet ii: 290293, 1989
  • 8
    Mandell BF, Lipani J: Refractory OA: differential diagnosis and treatment. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 21: 163178, 1995
  • 9
    Briviba K, Seis H: Non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. In, Natural Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease. Edited by BFrei. San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 1994
  • 10
    Hankinson SE, Stampfer MJ, Seddon JM, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Willett WC: Nutrient intake and cataract extraction in women: a prospective study. BMJ 305: 335339, 1992
  • 11
    Jacques PF, Chylack LT: Epidemiological evidence of a role for the antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids in cataract prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 53: 352S355S, 1991
  • 12
    Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC: A prospective study of antioxidant vitamins and incidence of coronary artery disease in women (abstract). Circulation 84 (Suppl II): 2168, 1991
  • 13
    Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, Willett WC: Vitamin E supplementation and risk of coronary heart disease among men. N Engl J Med 328: 14501456, 1993
  • 14
    Schwartz ER, Leveille C, Oh WH: Experimentally induced osteoarthritis in guinea pigs: effect of surgical procedure and dietary intake of vitamin C. Lab Anim Sci 31: 683687, 1981
  • 15
    Meacock SCR, Bodmer JL, Billingham MEJ: Experimental OA in guinea pigs. J Exp Pathol 71: 279293, 1990
  • 16
    Felson DT: Osteoarthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 16: 499512, 1990
  • 17
    McAlindon T, Dieppe P: The medical management of osteoarthritis of the knee: an inflammatory issue? Br J Rhematol 29: 471473, 1990
  • 18
    Felson DT, Zhang Y, Hannan MT, Naimark A, Weissman B, Aliabadi P, Levy D: The incidence and natural history of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly: the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study. Arthritis Rheum 38: 15001505, 1995
  • 19
    Kellgren JH, Lawrence JS: The Epidemiology of Chronic Rheumatism: Atlas of Standard Radiographs. Vol. 2. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific, 1963
  • 20
    Spector TD, Hochberg MC: Methodological problems in the epidemiological study of osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 53: 143146, 1994
  • 21
    Reproducibility and validity of food frequency questionnaires. In, Nutritional Epidemiology. Monographs in Epidemiology and Biostatistics. Vol. 15. Edited by WWillett. New York, Oxford University Press, 1990
  • 22
    Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Litin LB, Willett WC: Reproducibility and validity of an expanded self-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire among male health professionals. Am J Epidemiol 135: 11141126, 1992
  • 23
    Salvini S, Hunter DJ, Sampson L, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Willett WC: Food-based validation of a dietary questionnaire: the effects of week-to-week variation in food consumption. Int J Epidemiol 18: 858867, 1989
  • 24
    Jacques PF, Sulsky SI, Sadowski JA, Phillips JCC, Rush D, Willett WC: Comparison of micronutrient intake measured by a dietary questionnaire and biochemical indicators of micronutrient status. Am J Clin Nutr 57: 182189, 1993
  • 25
    Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rimm EB, Litin L, Willett WC: Correlations of vitamin A and E intakes with plasma concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols among American men and women. J Nutr 122: 17921801, 1992
  • 26
    Willett WC: Implications of total energy intake for epidemiologic analyses. In, Nutritional Epidemiology. Monographs in Epidemiology and Biostatistics. Vol. 15. Edited by WWillett. New York, Oxford University Press, 1990
  • 27
    Kannel WB, Sorlie PD: Some health benefits of physical activity: the Framingham Study. Arch Intern Med 139: 857861, 1979
  • 28
    Hannan MT, Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Naimark A: Habitual physical activity is not associated with knee osteoarthritis: the Framingham Study. J Rheumatol 20: 704709, 1993
  • 29
    Grant MD, Piotrowski ZH, Chappell R: Self-reported health and survival in the Longitudinal Study of Aging 1984–1986. J Clin Epidemiol 48: 375387, 1995
  • 30
    Liang KY, Zeger SL: Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models. Biometrika 73: 1322, 1986
  • 31
    Altman RD, Fries JF, Bloch DA, Carstens J, Cooke TD, Genant H, Gofton P, Groth H, McShane DJ, Murphy WA, Sharp JT, Spitz P, Williams CA, Wolfe F: Radiologic assessment of progression in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 30: 12141225, 1987
  • 32
    Schumacher HR Jr: Synovial inflammation, crystals and osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 22: (suppl 43): 101103, 1995
  • 33
    McAlindon TE, Hannan MT, Naimark A, Weissman B, Felson DT: Comparison of risk factors for patello-femoral and tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (abstract). Arthritis Rheum 37 (Suppl 9): S370, 1994
  • 34
    Peterkofsky B: Ascorbate requirement for hydroxylation and secretion of procollagen: relationship to inhibition of collagen synthesis in scurvy. Am J Clin Nutr 54: 1135S1140S, 1991
  • 35
    Peterkofsky B, Palka J, Wilson S, Takeda K, Shah V: Elevated activity of low molecular weight insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in sera of vitamin C deficient and fasted guinea pigs. Endocrinology 128: 17691779, 1991
  • 36
    Poole C: Multiple comparisons? No problem! Epidemiology 2: 241243, 1991
  • 37
    Schwartz ER, Adam L: Effect of ascorbic acid on arylsulfatase activities and sulfated proteoglycan metabolism in chonrocyte cultures. J Clin Invest 60: 96106, 1977
  • 38
    Spanheimer RG, Bird TA, Peterkofsky B: Regulation of collagen synthesis and mRNA levels in articular cartilage of scorbutic guinea pigs. Arch Biochem Biophys 246: 3341, 1986