• 1
    Medsger TA Jr: Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), localized forms of scleroderma, and calcinosis. In, Arthritis and Allied Conditions. Edited by DJMcCarty, WJKoopman. Philadelphia, Lea and Febiger, 1993
  • 2
    Arnett FC: HLA and autoimmunity in scleroderma (systemic sclerosis). Int Rev Immunol 12: 151172, 1995
  • 3
    Steen VD, Powell DL, Medsger TA Jr: Clinical correlations and prognosis based on serum autoantibodies in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 31: 196203, 1988
  • 4
    Weiner ES, Earnshaw WC, Senécal J-L, Bordwell B, Johnson P, Rothfield NF: Clinical associations of anticentromere antibodies and antibodies to topoisomerase I. Arthritis Rheum 31: 378385, 1988
  • 5
    Silman A: Epidemiology of scleroderma. Curr Opin Rheumatol 3: 967972, 1991
  • 6
    McGregor AR, Watson A, Yunis E, Pandey JP, Takehara K, Tidwell JT, Ruggieri A, Silver RM, Leroy EC, Maricq HR: Familial clustering of scleroderma spectrum disease. Am J Med 84: 10231032, 1988
  • 7
    Owens GR, Medsger TA Jr: Systemic sclerosis secondary to occupational exposure. Am J Med 85: 114116, 1988
  • 8
    Gladman DD, Keystone EC, Baron M, Lee P, Cane D, Mervert H: Increased frequency of HLA-DRS in scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum 24: 854856. 1981
  • 9
    Genth E, Mierau R, Genetzky P, von Mühlen CA, Kaufmann S, von Wilmowsky H, Meurer M, Krieg T, Pollman H-J, Hartl PW: Immunogenetic associations of scleroderma-related antinuclear antibodies. Arthritis Rheum 33: 657665, 1990
  • 10
    Whiteside TL, Medsger TA Jr, Rodnan GP: HLA-DR antigens in progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). J Rheumatol 10: 128131, 1983
  • 11
    Briggs D, Stephens C, Vaughan R, Welsh K, Black C: A molecular and serologic analysis of the major histocompatibility complex and complement component C4 in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 36: 943954, 1993
  • 12
    Reveille JD: Molecular genetics of systemic sclersis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 5: 753759, 1993
  • 13
    Reveille JD, Owerbach D, Goldstein R, Moreda R, Isern KA, Arnett FC: Association of polar amino acids at position 26 of the HLA-DQB1 first domain with the anticentromere autoantibody response in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). J Clin Invest 89: 12081213, 1992
  • 14
    Reveille JD, Durban E, MacLeod MJ, Goldstein R, Moreda R, Altman RD, Arnett FC: Association of amino acid sequences in the HLA-DQB1 first domain with the anti-topoisomerase I autoantibody response in scleroderma (progressive systemic sclerosis). J Clin Invest 90: 973980, 1992
  • 15
    Kuwana M, Kaburaki J, Okano Y, Inoko H, Tsuji K: The HLA-DR and DQ genes control the autoimmune response to DNA topoisomerase I in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). J Clin Invest 92: 12961301, 1993
  • 16
    Black CM, Welsh KI, Walker AE, Bernstein RM, Catoggio LJ, McGregor AR, Lloyd Jones JK: Genetic susceptibility to scleroderma-like syndrome induced by vinyl chloride. Lancet 1: 5355, 1983
  • 17
    Lawrence RC, Hochberg MC, Kelsey JL, McDuffie FC, Medsger TA Jr, Felts WR, Shulman LE: Estimates of the prevalence of selected arthritic and musculoskeletal diseases in the United States. J Rheumatol 16: 427441, 1989
  • 18
    Subcommittee for Scleroderma Criteria of the American Rheumatism Association Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee: Preliminary criteria for the classification of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Arthritis Rheum 23: 581590, 1980
  • 19
    Freni-Titulaer LWJ, Kelly DB, Grow AG, McKinley TW, Arnett FC: Connective tissue disease in southeastern Georgia: a case control study of etiologic factors. Am J Epidemiol 130: 404409, 1989
  • 20
    Fritzler MJ, Kinsella JD, Garbutt E: The CREST syndrome: a distinct serologic entity with anticentromere antibodies. Am J Med 69: 520526, 1980
  • 21
    Piccinini G, Cardellini E, Reimer G, Arnett FC, Durban E: An antigenic region of topoisomerase I in DNA polymerase chain reaction-generated fragments recognized by autoantibodies of scleroderma patients. Mol Immunol 28: 333339, 1991
  • 22
    Reveille JD, Moulds JM, Arnett FC: Major histocompatibility complex class II and C4 alleles in Mexican Americans with systemic lupus erythematosus. Tissue Antigens 45: 9197, 1995
  • 23
    Mauff G, Abbal M, Alper CA, Christiansen F, Cuccia M, Dawkins R, Doxiadis G, du Toit E, Giles C, Geserick G, Hauptmann G, Hobart M, Lokki M, McLean R, Nakamura S, O'Neill G, Partanen J, Rittner C, Schneider PM, Segurado O, Siemens I, Suzuki K, deMessias IT: Immunologic standardization: revised nomenclature for human complement component C4. WHO-IUIS Nomenclature Sub-Comittee. J Immunol Methods 163: 37, 1993
  • 24
    Lilienfeld DE, Stolley PD: Foundations of Epidemiology. New York, Oxford University Press, 1994
  • 25
    Mehta CR, Patel NR, Gray R: Computing an exact confidence interval for the common odds ratio in several 2 × 2 contingency tables. J Am Stat Assoc 80: 969973, 1985
  • 26
    Fernandez-Vina M, Moraes JR, Moraes ME, Miller S, Stastny P: HLA class II haplotypes in Amerindians and in black North and South Americans. Tissue Antigens 38: 235237, 1991
  • 27
    Del Pucnte A, Knowler WC, Pettitt DJ, Hennett PH: High incidence and prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in Pima Indians. Am J Epidemiol 129: 11701178, 1989
  • 28
    Heasley RP, Willkens RF, Bennett PH: High prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in Yakima Indians. Arthritis Rheum 16: 743748, 1973
  • 29
    Harvey J, Lotze M, Arnett FC, Bias WB, Billingsley LM, Harvey E, Hsu SH, Sutton JD, Zizic TM, Stevens MB: Rheumatoid arthritis in a Chippewa band: field study with clinical serologic and HLA-D correlations. J Rheumatol 10: 2832, 1983
  • 30
    Boyer GS, Templin DW, Lanier AP: Rheumatic diseases in Alaskan Indians of the southeast coast: high prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 18: 14771484, 1991
  • 31
    Willkens RF, Nepom GT, Marks DR, Nettles JW, Nepom BS: Association of HLA-Dw16 with rheumatoid arthritis in Yakima Indians: further evidence for the “shared epitope” hypothesis. Arthritis Rheum 34: 4347, 1991
  • 32
    Templin DW, Boyer GS, Lanier AP, Nelson JL, Barrington RA, Hansen JA, Harpster A, Carlsen R: Rheumatoid arthritis in Tlingit Indians: clinical characterization and HLA associations. J Rheumatol 21: 12381234, 1994
  • 33
    Morton RO, Cershwin ME, Brady C, Steinberg AD: The incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus in North American Indians. J Rheumatol 3: 186190, 1976
  • 34
    Cowie RL: Silica-dust-exposed mine workers with scleroderma (systemic sclerosis). Chest 92: 260262, 1987
  • 35
    Danieli MG, Candela M, Ricciatti AM, Reginelli R, Danieli G, Cohen IR, Gabrielli A: Antibodies to mycobacterial 65 kDa heat shock protein in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). J Autoimmun 5: 443452, 1992
  • 36
    Hramwell B: Diffuse scleroderma: its frequency, its occurrence in stone masons, its treatment by fibrolysin-elevations of temperature due to fibrolysin injections. Edinburgh Med J 12: 387401, 1914
  • 37
    Erasmus LD: Scleroderma in gold-miners on the Witwatersrand with particular reference to pulmonary manifestations. S Afr J Lab Clin Med 3: 209231, 1957
  • 38
    Rodnan GP, Benedek TG, Medsger TA Jr, Cammarata RJ: The association of progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with coal miner's pneumoconiosis and other forms of silicosis. Ann Intern Med 66: 323334, 1967
  • 39
    Haustein UF, Ziegler V: Environmentally induced systemic sclerosis-like disorders. Int J Dermatol 24: 147151, 1985
  • 40
    McHugh NJ, Whyte J, Harvey G, Haustein UF: Antitopoisomerase I antibodies in silica-associated systemic sclerosis: a model for autoimmunity. Arthritis Rheum 37: 11981205, 1994
  • 41
    Silman AJ, Jones SL: What is the contribution of occupational environmental factors to the occurrence of scleroderma in men? Ann Rheum Dis 51: 13221324, 1992
  • 42
    Silman AJ, Hicklin AJ, Black C: Geographical clustering of scleroderma in south and west London. Br J Rheumatol 29: 9296, 1990
  • 43
    Valesini G, Litta A, Bonavita MS, Luan FL, Purpura M, Mariani M, Halsano F: Geographical clustering of scleroderma in a rural area in the province of Rome. Clin Exp Rheumatol 11: 4147, 1993
  • 44
    Reveille JD, Durban E, Goldstein R, Moreda R, Arnett FC: Racial differences of scleroderma-related autoantibodies. Arthritis Rheum 35: 216218, 1992
  • 45
    Reveille JD, Arnett FC: Frequencies of scleroderma-related autoantibodies in patients meeting the American College of Rheumatology criteria for systemic sclerosis: reply (letter). Arthritis Rheum 36: 1333, 1993
  • 46
    Picillo U, Migliaresi S, Vatti M, Marcialis MR, Ferruzzi AM, Tirri G: Demographic differences in the frequencies of sclcroderma-related autoantibodies (letter). Arthritis Rheum 36: 1332, 1993
  • 47
    McNeilage LJ, Youngchaiyud U, Whittingham S: Racial differences in antinuclear antibody patterns and clinical manifestations of scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum 32: 5460, 1989
  • 48
    Satoh M, Akizuki M, Kuwana M, Mimori T, Yamagata H, Yoshida S, Homma M, Yamamoto T, Sasazuki T: Genetic and immunological diflerences between Japanese patients with diffuse scleroderma and limited scleroderma. J Rheumatol 21: 111114, 1994
  • 49
    Kuwana M, Kaburaki J, Okano Y, Tojo T, Homma M: Clinical and prognostic associations based on serum antinuclear antibodies in Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 37: 7583, 1994
  • 50
    Tan EM, Muro Y, Pollard KM: Autoantibody-defined epitopes on nuclear antigens are conserved, conformation-dependent and active site regions. Clin Exp Rheumatol 12: S27S31, 1994
  • 51
    Steinman L: Escape from “Horror Autotoxicus”: pathogenesis and treatment of autoimmune disease. Cell 80: 710, 1995