• 1
    Ginzler EM, Diamond HS, Weiner M, Schlesinger M, Fries JF, Wasner C, Medsger TA Jr, Ziegler G, Klippel JH, Hadler NM, Albert DA, Hess EV, Spencer-Green G, Grayzel A, Worth D, Hahn BH, Barnett EV: A multicenter study of outcome in systemic lupus erythematosus. I. Entry variables as predictors of prognosis. Arthritis Rheum 25: 601611, 1982
  • 2
    Dubois EL, Wierzchowiecki M, Cox MB, Weiner JM: Duration and death in systemic lupus erythematosus: an analysis of 249 cases. JAMA 227: 13991402, 1974
  • 3
    Studenski S, Allen NB, Caldwell DS, Rice JR, Polisson RP: Survival in systemic lupus erythematosus: a multivariate analysis of demographic factors. Arthritis Rheum 30: 13261332, 1987
  • 4
    Ward MM, Studenski S: Clinical manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus: identification of racial and socioeconomic influences. Arch Intern Med 150: 849853, 1990
  • 5
    Ward MM, Pyun E, Studenski S: Long-term survival in systemic lupus erythematosus: patient characteristics associated with poorer outcomes. Arthritis Rheum 38: 274283, 1995
  • 6
    Karlson EW, Daltroy LH, Lew RA, Wright EA, Partridge AJ, Roberts WN, Stern SH, Straaton KV, Wacholtz MC, Grosflam JM, Liang MH: The independence and stability of socioeconomic predictors of morbidity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 38: 267273, 1995
  • 7
    Reveille JD, Bartolucci A, Alarcón GS: Prognosis in systemic lupus erythematosus: negative impact of increasing age at onset, black race, and thrombocytopenia, as well as causes of death. Arthritis Rheum 33: 3748, 1990
  • 8
    Petri M, Perez-Gutthann S, Longenecker JC, Hochberg M: Morbidity of systemic lupus erythematosus: role of race and socioeconomic status. Am J Med 91: 345353, 1991
  • 9
    Osborne NG, Feit MD: The use of race in medical research. JAMA 267: 275279, 1992
  • 10
    Tan EM, Cohen AS, Fries JF, Masi AT, McShane DJ, Rothfield NF, Schaller JG, Talal N, Winchester RJ: The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 25: 12711277, 1982
  • 11
    Liang MH, Partridge AJ, Daltroy LH, Straaton KV, Galper SR, Holman HR: Strategies for reducing excess morbidity and mortality in blacks with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 34: 11871196, 1991
  • 12
    Adler NE, Boyce T, Chesney MA, Folkman S, Syme L: Socioeconomic inequalities in health: no easy solution. JAMA 269: 31403145, 1993
  • 13
    United States Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, Consumer Income. Series P-60 (181), 1991
  • 14
    Nakoa K, Treas J: Computing 1989 occupational prestige scores. Gen Soc Survey Methodological Rep 70: 127, 1990
  • 15
    Parker JC, Bradley LA, Devellis RM, Gerber LH, Holman HR, Keefe FJ, Lawrence TS, Liang MH, Lorig KR, Nicassio PM, Revenson TA, Rogers MP, Wallston KA, Wilson MG, Wolfe F: Biopsychosocial contributions to the management of arthritis disability: blueprints from an NIDRR-sponsored conference. Arthritis Rheum 36: 885889, 1993
  • 16
    US Department of Health and Human Services: Health Status of Minorities and Low Income Groups. Third edition. DHHS publication no. (PHS, HRSA) 91-271-848, 1991
  • 17
    Heckler M: Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Black and Minority Health. Washington, DC, US Department of Health and Human Services, 1985
  • 18
    Cassel J: The contribution of the social environment to host resistance. Am J Epidemiol 104: 107123, 1976
  • 19
    Corman LC: The role of diet in animal models of SLE: possible implication for human lupus. Semin Arthritis Rheum 15: 6169, 1985
  • 20
    Robinson DR, Xu LL, Tateno S, Guo M, Colvin RB: Suppression of autoimmune disease by dietary n-3 fatty acids. J Lipid Res 34: 14351444, 1993
  • 21
    Westberg G, Tarkowski A: Effect of MaxEPA in patients with SLE: a double-blind, crossover study. Scand J Rheumatol 19: 137143, 1990
  • 22
    Willett WC, Sampson L, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Bain C, Witschi J, Hennekens CH: Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol 122: 5165, 1985
  • 23
    Willett WC, Sampson L, Browne ML, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B: The use of a self-administered questionnaire to assess diet four years in the past. Am J Epidemiol 127: 188199, 1988
  • 24
    Suitor CJ, Gardner J, Willett WC: A comparison of food frequency and diet recall methods in studies of nutrient intake of low-income pregnant women. J Am Diet Assoc 89: 17861794, 1989
  • 25
    Haynes RB, Taylor DW, Sackett DL: Compliance in Health Care. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979
  • 26
    Morisky DE, Green LW, Levine DM: Concurrent and predictive validity of a self-reported measure of medication adherence. Med Care 24: 6774, 1986
  • 27
    Kravitz RL, Hays R, Sherbourne CD, DiMatteo MR, Rogers WH, Ordway L, Greenfield S: Recall of recommendations and adherence to advice among patients with chronic medical conditions. Arch Intern Med 153: 18691878, 1993
  • 28
    Morisky DE, Levine DM, Green LW, Shapiro S, Russell R, Smith CR: Five-year blood pressure control and mortality following health education for hypertensive patients. Am J Public Health 73: 153162, 1983
  • 29
    Wolf MH, Putnam SM, James SA, Stiles WB: The Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale: development of a scale to measure patient perceptions of physician behavior. J Behav Med 1: 391401, 1978
  • 30
    Bandura A: Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev 84: 191215, 1977
  • 31
    Holman H, Lorig K: Perceived self-efficacy in self-management of chronic disease. In, Self-Efficacy: Thought Control of Action. Edited by RSchwarzer. Washington, DC, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 1992
  • 32
    Strecher VJ, DeVellis BM, Becker MH, Rosenstock IM: The role of self-efficacy in achieving health behavior change. Health Educ Q 13: 7392, 1986
  • 33
    Holden G: The relationship of self-efficacy appraisals to subsequent health related outcomes: a meta-analysis. Soc Work Health Care 16: 5393, 1991
  • 34
    Lorig K, Chastain RL, Ung E, Shoor S, Holman HR: Development and evaluation of a scale to measure perceived self-efficacy in people with arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 32: 3744, 1989
  • 35
    Wallston KA: Psychological control and its impact in the management of rheumatologic disorders. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol 7: 281295, 1993
  • 36
    Mirowsky J, Ross K: Control or defense? Depression and sense of control over good and bad outcomes. J Health Soc Behav 31: 7186, 1990
  • 37
    Wallston KA, Wallston BS, DeVellis R: Development of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scales. Health Educ Monogr 6: 160170, 1978
  • 38
    Goodenow C, Reisine ST, Grady KE: Quality of social support and associated social and psychological functioning in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Health Psychol 9: 266284, 1990
  • 39
    Berkman LF: The assessment of social networks and social support in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 31: 743749, 1983
  • 40
    Gottlieb BH: Social networks and social support: an overview of research, practice, and policy implications. Health Educ Q 12: 522, 1985
  • 41
    Liang MH, Socher SA, Roberts WN, Esdaile JM: Measurement of systemic lupus erythematosus activity in clinical research. Arthritis Rheum 31: 817825, 1988
  • 42
    Liang MH, Socher SA, Larson MG, Schur PH: Reliability and validity of six systems for the clinical assessment of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 32: 11071118, 1989
  • 43
    Gladman D, Ginzler E, Goldsmith C, Fortin P, Liang M, Urowitz M, Bacon P, Bombardieri S, Hanly J, Hay E, Isenberg D, Jones J Verrier, Kalunian K, Maddison P, Nived O, Petri M, Richter M, Sanchez-Guerrero J, Snaith M, Sturfelt G, Symmons D, Zoma A: The development and initial evaluation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 39: 363369, 1996
  • 44
    Ware JE Jr, Sherbourne CD: The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care 30: 473483, 1992
  • 45
    McHorney CA, Ware JE Jr, Raczek AE: The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). II. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs. Med Care 31: 247263, 1993
  • 46
    Cohen J: Statistical Power Analyses for the Behavioral Sciences. Second edition. Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum, 1988
  • 47
    Mosteller F, Tukey JW: Data Analysis and Regression, a Second Course in Statistics. Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1977
  • 48
    Esdaile JM, Sampalis JS, Lacaille D, Danoff D: The relationship of socioeconomic status to subsequent health status in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 31: 423427, 1988
  • 49
    Liang MH, Rogers M, Larson M, Eaton HM, Murawski BJ, Taylor JE, Swafford J, Schur PH: The psychosocial impact of systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 27: 1319, 1984
  • 50
    Weinberger M, Tierney WM, Booher P, Katz BP: Can the provision of information to patients with osteoarthritis improve functional status? A randomized, controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 32: 15771583, 1989