• 1
    Emery P: Therapeutic approaches for early rheumatoid arthritis. How early? How aggressive? Br J Rheumatol 34 (Suppl 2): 8790, 1995
  • 2
    Fuchs HA, Pincus T: Radiographic damage in rheumatoid arthritis: description by nonlinear models. J Rheumatol 19: 16551658, 1992
  • 3
    Brook A, Corbett M: Radiographic changes in early rheumatoid disease. Ann Rheum Dis 36: 7173, 1977
  • 4
    Wolfe F, Hawley DJ, Cathey MA: Clinical and health status measures over time: prognosis and outcome assessment in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 18: 12901297, 1991
  • 5
    Holoshitz J, Klajman A, Drucker I, Lapidot Z, Yaretzky A, Frenkel A, van Eden W, Cohen IR: T lymphocytes of rheumatoid arthritis patients show augmented reactivity to a fraction of mycobacteria cross-reactive with cartilage. Lancet ii: 305309, 1986
  • 6
    Res PCM, Schaar CG, Breedveld FC, van Eden W, van Embden JDA, Cohen IR, De Vries RRP: Synovial fluid T cell reactivity against 65 kD heat shock protein of mycobacteria in early chronic arthritis. Lancet ii: 478481, 1988
  • 7
    Bucht A, Oksenberg JR, Lindblad S, Gronberg A, Steinman L, Klareskog L: Characterization of T cell receptor alpha beta repertoire in synovial tissue from different temporal phases of rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Immunol 35: 159165, 1992
  • 8
    Struyk L, Kurnick JT, Hawes GE, van Laar JM, Schipper R, Oksenberg JR, Steinman L, De Vries RRP, Breedveld FC, van den Elsen PJ: T cell receptor V-gene usage in synovial fluid lymphocytes of patients with chronic arthritis. Hum Immunol 37: 237251, 1993
  • 9
    Cruickshank B: Interpretation of multiple biopsies of synovial tissue in rheumatic diseases. Ann Rheum Dis 11: 137145, 1951
  • 10
    Kulka JP, Bocking D, Ropes MW, Bauer W: Early joint lesions of rheumatoid arthritis: report of eight cases, with knee biopsies of lesions of less than one year's duration. Arch Pathol Lab Med 59: 129150, 1955
  • 11
    Mikkelsen WM, Duff IF, Castor CW, French AJ, Zevely HA: Synovial specimens obtained by knee joint biopsy. Acta Med Scand 5341: 1529, 1958
  • 12
    Muirden KD, Mills KW: Do lymphocytes protect the rheumatoid joint? BMJ 4: 219221, 1971
  • 13
    Hamerman D, Sandson J, Schubert M: Biochemical events in joint disease. J Chronic Dis 16: 835852, 1963
  • 14
    Schumacher HR, Kitridou RC: Synovitis of recent onset: a clinicopathologic study during the first month of disease. Arthritis Rheum 15: 465485, 1972
  • 15
    Goldenberg DL, Cohen AS: Synovial membrane histopathology in the differential diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, gout, pseudogout, systemic lupus erythematosus, infectious arthritis and degenerative joint disease. Medicine (Baltimore) 57: 239252, 1978
  • 16
    Iguchi T, Matsubara T, Kawai K, Hirohata K: Clinical and histologic observations of monoarthritis. Clin Orthop 250: 241249, 1990
  • 17
    Zvaifler NJ: Rheumatoid arthritis—the multiple pathways to chronic synovitis. Lab Invest 73: 307310, 1995
  • 18
    Soden M, Rooney M, Cullen A, Whelan A, Feighery C, Bresnihan B: Immunohistological features in the synovium obtained from clinically uninvolved knee joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 28: 287292, 1989
  • 19
    De Bois MHW, Tak PP, Arndt JW, Kluin PM, Pauwels EKJ, Breedveld FC: Joint scintigraphy for quantification of synovitis with 99mTc-labelled human immunoglobulin G compared to histological examination. Clin Exp Rheumatol 13: 155159, 1995
  • 20
    Tak PP, Kummer JA, Hack CE, Daha MR, Smeets TJM, Erkelens GW, Meinders AE, Kluin PM, Breedveld FC: Granzyme-positive cytotoxic cells are specifically increased in early rheumatoid synovial tissue. Arthritis Rheum 37: 17351743, 1994
  • 21
    Tak PP, Thurkow EW, Daha MR, Kluin PM, Smeets TJM, Meinders AE, Breedveld FC: Expression of adhesion molecules in early rheumatoid synovial tissue. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 77: 236242, 1995
  • 22
    Madhok R, Crilly A, Watson J, Capell HA: Serum interleukin 6 levels in rheumatoid arthritis: correlations with clinical and laboratory indices of disease activity. Ann Rheum Dis 52: 232234, 1993
  • 23
    Rooney M, Symons JA, Duff GW: Interleukin 1 beta in synovial fluid is related to local disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int 10: 217219, 1990
  • 24
    Tak PP, van der Lubbe PA, Cauli A, Daha MR, Smeets TJM, Kluin PM, Meinders AE, Yanni G, Panayi GS, Breedveld FC: Reduction of synovial inflammation after anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 38: 14571465, 1995
  • 25
    Tak PP, Taylor PC, Breedveld FC, Smeets TJM, Daha MR, Kluin PM, Meinders AE, Maini RN: Decreases in cellularity and expression of adhesion molecules by anti-tumor necrosis factor a monoclonal antibody treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 39: 10771081, 1996
  • 26
    Arnett FC, Edworthy SM, Bloch DA, McShane DJ, Fries JF, Cooper NS, Healey LA, Kaplan SR, Liang MH, Luthra HS, Medsger TA Jr, Mitchell DM, Neustadt DH, Pinals RS, Schaller JG, Sharp JT, Wilder RL, Hunder GG: The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 31: 315324, 1988
  • 27
    Parker RH, Pearson CM: A simplified synovial biopsy needle. Arthritis Rheum 6: 172176, 1963
  • 28
    Stevens CR, Mapp PI, Revell PA: A monoclonal antibody (Mab 67) marks type B synoviocytes. Rheumatol Int 10: 103106, 1990
  • 29
    Edwards JCW, Winchester R, Henderson B, Laurent T, Schumacher HR Jr, Simkin P, Woolley D, Lindblad S, Bresnihan B, Levick JR: Second International Meeting on Synovium—cell biology, physiology and pathology—21–23 September 1994, Canterbury, United Kingdom. Ann Rheum Dis 54: 389391, 1995
  • 30
    Caldwell CW, Bridges AJ, Walker SE, Smarr KL, Reichert RJ, Anderson SK, Hewett JE, Parker JC: A controlled study of lymphocyte subsets in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 63: 237244, 1992
  • 31
    Henderson DR, Jayson MI, Tribe CR: Lack of correlation of synovial histology with joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 34: 711, 1975
  • 32
    Lindblad S, Hedfors E: Intraarticular variation in synovitis: local macroscopic and microscopic signs of inflammatory activity are significantly correlated. Arthritis Rheum 28: 977986, 1985
  • 33
    Steere AC, Duray PH, Butcher EC: Spirochetal antigens and lymphoid cell surface markers in Lyme synovitis: comparison with rheumatoid synovium and tonsillar lymphoid tissue. Arthritis Rheum 31: 487495, 1988
  • 34
    Rooney M, Condell D, Quinlan W, Daly L, Whelan A, Feighery C, Bresnihan B: Analysis of the histologic variation of synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 31: 956963, 1988
  • 35
    Miyasaka N, Sato K, Goto M, Sasano M, Natsuyama M, Inoue K, Nishioka K: Augmented interleukin-1 production and HLA-DR expression in the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis patients: possible involvement in joint destruction. Arthritis Rheum 31: 480486, 1988
  • 36
    Rooney M, Whelan A, Feighery C, Bresnihan B: The immunohistologic features of synovitis, disease activity and in vitro IgM rheumatoid factor synthesis by blood mononuclear cells in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 16: 459467, 1989
  • 37
    McCachren SS, Haynes BF, Niedel JE: Localization of collagenase mRNA in rheumatoid arthritis synovium by in situ hybridization histochemistry. J Clin Immunol 10: 1927, 1990
  • 38
    Koch AE, Robinson PG, Radosevich JA, Pope RM: Distribution of CD45RA and CD45RO T-lymphocyte subsets in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue. J Clin Immunol 10: 192199, 1990
  • 39
    Haynes BF, Hale LP, Patton KL, Martin ME, McCallum RM: Measurement of an adhesion molecule as an indicator of inflammatory disease activity: up-regulation of the receptor for hyaluronate (CD44) in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 34: 14341443, 1991
  • 40
    Gravallese EM, Darling JM, Ladd AL, Katz JN, Glimcher LH: In situ hybridization studies of stromelysin and collagenase messenger RNA expression in rheumatoid synovium. Arthritis Rheum 34: 10761084, 1991
  • 41
    Ducret J Morales, Wayner E, Elices MJ, Alvaro-Gracia JM, Zvaifler NJ, Firestein GS: Alpha 4/beta 1 integrin (VLA-4) ligands in arthritis: vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in synovium and on fibroblast-like synoviocytes. J Immunol 149: 14241431, 1992
  • 42
    Kahle P, Saal JG, Schaudt K, Zacher J, Fritz P, Pawelec G: Determination of cytokines in synovial fluids: correlation with diagnosis and histomorphological characteristics of synovial tissue. Ann Rheum Dis 51: 731734, 1992
  • 43
    Hutton CW, Hinton C, Dieppe PA: Intra-articular variation of synovial changes in knee arthritis: biopsy study comparing changes in patellofemoral synovium and the medial tibiofemoral synovium. Br J Rheumatol 26: 58, 1987
  • 44
    Parker F, Keefer CS: Gross and histologic changes in the knee joint in rheumatoid arthritis. Arch Pathol 20: 507522, 1935
  • 45
    Thurkow EW, van der Heijden IM, Breedveld FC, Smeets TJM, Daha MR, Kluin PM, Meinders AE, Tak PP: Increased expression of IL-15 in the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared to patients with Yersinia-induced arthritis and osteoarthritis. J Pathol (in press)
  • 46
    De Bois MHW, Arndt JW, Tak PP, Kluin PM, van der Velde EA, Pauwels EKJ, Breedveld FC: 99Tcm-labelled polyclonal human immunoglobulin G scintigraphy before and after intra-articular knee injection of triamcinolone hexacetonide in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nucl Med Commun 14: 883887, 1993
  • 47
    Solokoff L, Hough AJ: Pathology of rheumatoid arthritis and allied disorders. In, Arthritis and Allied Conditions. Edited by DJMcCarty. Philadelphia, Lea and Febiger, 1985
  • 48
    Cush JJ, Lipsky PE: Cellular basis for rheumatoid inflammation. Clin Orthop 265: 922, 1991
  • 49
    Ishikawa H, Ziff M: Electron microscopic observations of immunoreactive cells in the rheumatoid synovial membrane. Arthritis Rheum 19: 114, 1976
  • 50
    Lindblad S, Klareskog L, Hedfors E, Forsum U, Sundström C: Phenotypic characterization of synovial tissue cells in situ in different types of synovitis. Arthritis Rheum 26: 13211332, 1983
  • 51
    Soden M, Rooney M, Whelan A, Feighery C, Bresnihan B: Immunohistological analysis of the synovial membrane: search for predictors of the clinical course in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 50: 673676, 1991
  • 52
    Yanni G, Whelan A, Feighery C, Bresnihan B: Analysis of cell populations in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissues. Semin Arthritis Rheum 21: 393399, 1992
  • 53
    Arnason JA, Malone DG: Role of mast cells in arthritis. Chem Immunol 62: 204238, 1995
  • 54
    Brown KA, Perry ME, Mustafa Y, Wood SK, Crawley M, Taub N, Dumonde DC: The distribution and abnormal morphology of plasma cells in rheumatoid synovium. Scand J Immunol 41: 50951, 1995
  • 55
    Waxman BA, Sledge CB: Correlation of histochemical, histologic and biochemical evaluations of human synovium with clinical activity. Arthritis Rheum 16: 376382, 1973
  • 56
    Walters MT, Smith JL, Moore K, Evans PR, Cawley MI: An investigation of the action of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs on the rheumatoid synovial membrane: reduction in T lymphocyte subpopulations and HLA-DP and DQ antigen expression after gold or penicillamine therapy. Ann Rheum Dis 46: 716, 1987
  • 57
    Rooney M, Whelan A, Feighery C, Bresnihan B: Changes in lymphocyte infiltration of the synovial membrane and the clinical course of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 32: 361369, 1989
  • 58
    Corkill MM, Kirkham BW, Haskard DO, Barbatis C, Gibson T, Panayi GS: Gold treatment of rheumatoid arthritis decreases synovial expression of the endothelial leukocyte adhesion receptor ELAM-1. J Rheumatol 18: 14531460, 1991
  • 59
    Tak PP, Hintzen RQ, Teunissen JJM, Smeets TJM, Daha MR, van Lier RAW, Kluin PM, Meinders AE, Swaak AJG, Breedveld FC: Expression of the activation antigen CD27 in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 80: 129138, 1996
  • 60
    Mulherin D, FitzGerald O, Bresnihan B: Synovial tissue macro-phage populations and articular damage in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 39: 115124, 1996