• 1
    Lawrence RC, Hochberg MC, Kelsey JL, McDuffie FC, Medsger TA, Felts WR, Shulman LE: Estimates of the prevalence of selected arthritic and musculoskeletal diseases in the United States. J Rheumatol 16: 427441, 1989
  • 2
    National Center for Health Statistics: Basic Data on Arthritis: Knee, Hip, and Sacroiliac Joints, in Adults Aged 25–74 Years: United States, 1971–1975. Vital and Health Statistics Series 11 Number 213. DHEW Publication # (PHS) 79–1661. Public Health Service. Washington, DC, US Government Printing Office, 1979
  • 3
    Felson DT, Naimark A, Anderson J, Kazis L, Castelli W, Meenan RF: The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly: the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study. Arthritis Rheum 30: 914918, 1987
  • 4
    Radin EL: Factors influencing the progression of osteoarthritis. In, Articular Cartilage and Knee Joint Function: Basic Science and Arthroscopy. Edited by JWEwing. New York, Raven Press, 1990
  • 5
    Lewis JL, Lew WD, Shybut GI, Jasty M, Hill JA: Biomechanical function of knee ligament. In, Symposium on Sports Medicine: The Knee. Edited by GFinerman. St. Louis, CV Mosby, 1985
  • 6
    Pope MH, Johnson RJ, Brown DW, Tighe C: The role of the musculature in injuries to the medial collateral ligament. J Bone Joint Surg Am 61: 398402, 1979
  • 7
    Schipplein OD, Andriacchi TP: Interaction between active and passive knee stabilizers during level walking. Orthop Res 9: 113119, 1991
  • 8
    Johansson H: Role of knee ligaments in proprioception and regulation of muscle stiffness. J Electromyogr Kines 1: 158179, 1992
  • 9
    Baratta R, Solomonow M, Zhou BH, Letson D, Chuinard R, d'Ambrosia R: Muscle coactivation: the role of the antagonist musculature in maintaining knee stability. Am J Sports Med 16: 113122, 1988
  • 10
    Draganich LF, Jaeger RJ, Kralj AR: Coactivation of the hamstrings and quadriceps during extension of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Am 71: 10751081, 1989
  • 11
    Walla DJ, Albright JP, McAuley E, Martin RK, Eldridge V, El-Khoury G: Hamstring control and the unstable anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee. Am J Sports Med 13: 3439, 1985
  • 12
    Solomonow M, Baratta R, Zhon BH, Shoji H, Bose W, Beck C, d'Ambrosia R: The synergistic action of the anterior cruciate ligament and thigh muscles in maintaining joint stability. Am J Sports Med 15: 207213, 1987
  • 13
    O'Connor BL, Brandt KD: Neurogenic factors in the etiopathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 19: 581605, 1993
  • 14
    O'Connor BL, Palmoski MJ, Brandt KD: Neurogenic acceleration of degenerative joint lesions. J Bone Joint Surg Am 67: 562572, 1985
  • 15
    O'Connor BL, Visco DM, Brandt KD, Myers SL, Kalasinski LA: Neurogenic acceleration of osteoarthrosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 74: 367376, 1992
  • 16
    Barrack RL, Skinner HB, Cook SD, Haddad RJ: Effect of articular disease and total knee arthroplasty on knee joint-position sense. J Neurophysiol 50: 684687, 1983
  • 17
    Barret DS, Cobb AG, Bentley G: Joint proprioception in normal, osteoarthritic and replaced knees. J Bone Joint Surg Br 73: 5356, 1991
  • 18
    Skinner HB, Barrack RL, Cook SD: Age-related decline in proprioception. Clin Orthop 184: 208211, 1984
  • 19
    Sell S, Zacher J, Lack S: Proprioception decline in the osteoarthritic knee. Z Rheumatol 52: 150155, 1993
  • 20
    Kellgren JH, Lawrence JS: Radiological assessment of osteoarthrosis. Ann Rheum Dis 16: 494501, 1957
  • 21
    Skinner HB, Barrack RL, Cook SD, Haddad RJ: Joint position sense in total knee arthroplasty. J Orthop Res 1: 276283, 1984
  • 22
    Barrack RL, Skinner HB, Buckley SL: Proprioception in the anterior cruciate deficient knee. Am J Sports Med 17: 16, 1989
  • 23
    Bellamy N, Buchanan WW, Goldsmith CH, Campbell J, Stitt L: Validation study of WOMAC: a health status instrument for measuring clinically important patient-relevant outcomes following total hip or knee arthroplasty in osteoarthritis. J Orthop Rheumatol 1: 95108, 1988
  • 24
    Bellamy N, Buchanan WW, Goldsmith CH, Campbell J, Stitt L: Validation study of WOMAC: a health status instrument for measuring clinically important patient relevant outcomes to antirheumatic drug in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. J Rheumatol 15: 18331840, 1988
  • 25
    Marks R: Proprioceptive sensibility in women with normal and osteoarthritic knee joints. Clin Rheumatol 12: 170175, 1993
  • 26
    Marks R: Correlation between knee position sense measurements and disease severity in persons with osteoarthritis. Rev Rhum 61: 365372, 1994
  • 27
    Sharma L, Pai Y-C, Holtkamp K, Rymer WZ: Is knee joint proprioception worse in the arthritic knee versus the unaffected knee in unilateral knee osteoarthritis? Arthritis Rheum 40: 15181525, 1997
  • 28
    Gordon J: Assumptions underlying physical therapy intervention: theoretical and historical perspectives. In, Movement Science: Foundations for Physical Therapy in Rehabilitation. Edited by JHCarr, RBShepard. Rockville, MD, Aspen, 1987
  • 29
    O'Sullivan SB: Strategies to improve motor control and motor learning. In, Physical Rehabilitation Assessment and Treatment. Third edition. Edited by SBO'Sullivan, TJSchmitz. Philadelphia, FA Davis, 1994