Compliance with regimens for chronic childhood diseases such as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is often less than optimal. This study examined the effectiveness of strategies designed to improve the medication compliance of a 14-year-old patient with JRA. A withdrawal (single-subject) design with repeated measures of compliance and clinical outcome was used to evaluate the compliance-improvement strategies. Positive reinforcement behavioral strategies were most effective in improving compliance when compared with baseline and a simplified regimen condition. Compliance changes were maintained during a nine-month follow-up period. Although clinical outcome results were not as straight forward, there seemed to be a trend toward improvement in symptoms, which was associated with higher compliance levels.