• 1
    Pincus T, Callahan LF, Sale WG, Brooks AL, Payne LE, Vaughn WK. Severe functional declines, work disability, and increased mortality in seventy-five rheumatoid arthritis patients studied over nine years. Arthritis Rheum 1984; 27: 86472.
  • 2
    Scott DL, Symmons DPM, Coulton BL, Popert AJ. Longterm outcome of treating rheumatoid arthritis: results after 20 years. Lancet 1987; 1: 110811.
  • 3
    Reilly PA, Cosh JA, Maddison PJ, Rasker JJ, Silman AJ. Mortality and survival in rheumatoid arthritis: a 25 year prospective study of 100 patients. Ann Rheum Dis 1990; 49: 3639.
  • 4
    Wolfe F. Rheumatoid arthritis. In: BellamyN, editor. Prognosis in the rheumatic diseases. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1991. p. 3782.
  • 5
    Van Zeben D, Hazes JMW, Zwinderman AH, Vandenbroucke JP, Breedveld FC. Factors predicting outcome of rheumatoid arthritis: results of a followup study. J Rheumatol 1993; 20: 128896.
  • 6
    Hochberg MC. Predicting the prognosis of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: is there a crystal ball? J Rheumatol 1993; 20: 12657.
  • 7
    Pincus T, Callahan LF. How many types of patients meet classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis? J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 13859.
  • 8
    Luqmani R, Bacon PA, Moots RJ, Janssen B, Pall A, Emery P, et al. Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) for use in systemic necrotizing vasculitis. QJM 1994; 87: 6718.
  • 9
    Emery P. The optimal management of early rheumatoid disease: the key to preventing disability. Br J Rheumatol 1994; 33: 7658.
  • 10
    Luukkainen R, Kaarela K, Isomaki H, Martio J, Kiviniemi P, Rasanen J, et al. The prediction of radiological destruction during the early stage of rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1983; 1: 2958.
  • 11
    Scott DL, Grindulis KA, Struthers GR, Coulton BL, Popert AJ, Bacon PA. Progression of radiological changes in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1984; 43: 817.
  • 12
    Sharp JT, Wolfe F, Mitchell DM, Bloch DA. The progression of erosion and joint space narrowing scores in rheumatoid arthritis during the first twenty-five years of disease. Arthritis Rheum 1991; 34: 6608.
  • 13
    Larsen A, Thoen J. Hand radiography of 200 patients with rheumatoid arthritis repeated after an interval of one year. Scand J Rheumatol 1987; 16: 395401.
  • 14
    Fuchs HA, Pincus T. Radiographic damage in rheumatoid arthritis: description by nonlinear models. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 16558.
  • 15
    Pincus T, Callahan LF, Fuchs HA, Larsen A, Kaye J. Quantitative analysis of hand radiographs in rheumatoid arthritis: time course of radiographic changes, relation to joint examination measures, and comparison of different scoring methods. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 19839.
  • 16
    Scott DL, Laasonen L, Priolo F, Houssien DA, Bacarini L, Cerase A, Cammisa M. The radiological assessment of rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1997; 15 Suppl 17: S5361.
  • 17
    Nissila M, Isomaki H, Kaarela K, Kiviniemi P, Martio J, Sarna S. Prognosis of inflammatory joint diseases: a three-year follow-up study. Scand J Rheumatol 1983; 12: 338.
  • 18
    Yelin E, Meenan R, Nevitt M, Epstein W. Work disability in rheumatoid arthritis: effects of disease, social, and work factors. Ann Intern Med 1980; 93: 5516.
  • 19
    Callahan LF, Bloch DA, Pincus T. Identification of work disability in rheumatoid arthritis: physical, radiographic and laboratory variables do not add explanatory power to demographic and functional variables. J Clin Epidemiol 1992; 45: 12738.
  • 20
    Fifield J, Reisine S, Grady K. Work disability and the experience of pain and depression in rheumatoid arthritis. Soc Sci Med 1995; 33: 57985.
  • 21
    Isomaki HA, Mutru O, Koota K. Death rate and causes of death in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 1975; 4: 2058.
  • 22
    Pincus T, Callahan LF. Taking mortality in rheumatoid arthritis seriously–predictive markers, socioeconomic status and comorbidity. J Rheumatol 1986; 13: 8415.
  • 23
    Rasker JJ, Cosh JA. The natural history of rheumatoid arthritis: a fifteen year follow-up study. The prognostic significance of features noted in the first year. Clin Rheumatol 1984; 3: 1120.
  • 24
    Pincus T, Wolfe F, Callahan LF. Updating a reassessment of traditional paradigms concerning rheumatoid arthritis. In: WolfeF, PincusT, editors. Rheumatoid arthritis: pathogenesis, assessment, outcome, and treatment. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.; 1994. p. 174.
  • 25
    Pincus T, Callahan LF. Quantitative measures to assess, monitor and predict morbidity and mortality in rheumatoid arthritis. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol 1992; 6: 16191.
  • 26
    Fleming TR, DeMets DL. Surrogate end points in clinical trials: are we being misled? Ann Intern Med 1996; 125: 60513.
  • 27
    Pincus T, Callahan LF. Prognostic markers of activity and damage in rheumatoid arthritis: why clinical trials and inception cohort studies indicate more favorable outcomes than studies of patients with established disease. Br J Rheumatol 1995; 34: 1969.
  • 28
    Van Leeuwen MA, van der Heijde DMFM, van Rijswijk MH, Houtman PM, van Riel PLCM, van de Putte LBA, et al. Interrelationship of outcome measures and process variables in early rheumatoid arthritis. A comparison of radiologic damage, physical disability, joint counts, and acute phase reactants. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 4259.
  • 29
    Plant MJ, Saklatvala J, Borg AA, Jones PW, Dawes PT. Measurement and prediction of radiological progression in early rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 180813.
  • 30
    Hawley DJ, Wolfe F. Sensitivity to change of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and other clinical and health status measures in rheumatoid arthritis: results of short-term clinical trials and observational studies versus long-term observational studies. Arthritis Care Res 1992; 5: 1306.
  • 31
    Paimela L, Palosuo T, Leirisalo-Repo M, Helve T, Aho K. Prognostic value of quantitative measurement of rheumatoid factor in early rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1995; 34: 114650.
  • 32
    Mulherin D, Fitzgerald O, Bresnihan B. Clinical improvement and radiological deterioration in rheumatoid arthritis: evidence that pathogenesis of synovial inflammation and articular erosion may differ. Br J Rheumatol 1996; 35: 12638.
  • 33
    Decker JL, and the Glossary Subcommittee of the ARA Committee on Rheumatologic Practice. American Rheumatism Association nomenclature and classification of arthritis and rheumatism (1983). Arthritis Rheum 1983; 26: 102932.
  • 34
    Fuchs HA, Kaye JJ, Callahan LF, Nance EP, Pincus T. Evidence of significant radiographic damage in rheumatoid arthritis within the first 2 years of disease. J Rheumatol 1989; 16: 58591.
  • 35
    Olsen NJ, Callahan LF, Brooks RH, Nance EP, Kaye JJ, Stastny P, et al. Associations of HLA-DR4 with rheumatoid factor and radiographic severity in rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Med 1988; 84: 25764.
  • 36
    Pincus T, Callahan LF, Brooks RH, Fuchs HA, Olsen NJ, Kaye JJ. Self-report questionnaire scores in rheumatoid arthritis compared with traditional physical, radiographic, and laboratory measures. Ann Intern Med 1989; 110: 25966.
  • 37
    Trentham DE, Belli JA, Anderson RJ, Buckley JA, Goetzl EJ, David JR, et al. Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med 1981; 305: 97682.
  • 38
    Seligman MEP. Helplessness: on depression, development, and death. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company; 1975.
  • 39
    Callahan LF, Brooks RH, Pincus T. Further analysis of learned helplessness in rheumatoid arthritis using a “Rheumatology Attitudes Index”. J Rheumatol 1988; 15: 41826.
  • 40
    DeVellis RF, Callahan LF. A brief measure of helplessness in rheumatic disease: the helplessness subscale of the Rheumatology Attitudes Index. J Rheumatol 1993; 20: 8669.
  • 41
    Ropes MW, Bennett GA, Cobb S, Jacox RF, Jessar RA. 1958 revision of diagnostic criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. Bull Rheum Dis 1958; 9: 1756.
  • 42
    Pincus T, Callahan LF, Vaughn WK. Questionnaire, walking time and button test measures of functional capacity as predictive markers for mortality in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1987; 14: 24051.
  • 43
    Pincus T, Brooks RH, Callahan LF. Prediction of longterm mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis according to simple questionnaire and joint count measures. Ann Intern Med 1994; 120: 2634.
  • 44
    Callahan LF, Cordray DS, Wells G, Pincus T. Formal education and five-year mortality in rheumatoid arthritis: mediation by helplessness scale scores. Arthritis Care Res 1996; 9: 46372.
  • 45
    Kaye JJ, Nance EP, Callahan LF, Carroll FE, Winfield AC, Earthman WJ, et al. Observer variation in quantitative assessment of rheumatoid arthritis. Part II. A simplified scoring system. Invest Radiol 1987; 22: 416.
  • 46
    Hochberg MC, Chang RW, Dwosh I, Lindsey S, Pincus T, Wolfe F. The American College of Rheumatology 1991 revised criteria for the classification of global functional status in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1992; 35: 498502.
  • 47
    Pincus T, Callahan LF. Rheumatology function tests: grip strength, walking time, button test and questionnaires document and predict longterm morbidity and mortality in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 10517.
  • 48
    Huskisson EC. Measurement of pain. J Rheumatol 1982; 9: 7689.
  • 49
    Callahan LF, Brooks RH, Summey JA, Pincus T. Quantitative pain assessment for routine care of rheumatoid arthritis patients, using a pain scale based on activities of daily living and a visual analog pain scale. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 6306.
  • 50
    Fuchs HA, Callahan LF, Kaye JJ, Brooks RH, Nance EP, Pincus T. Radiographic and joint count findings of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis: related and unrelated findings. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 4451.
  • 51
    Fuchs HA, Brooks RH, Callahan LF, Pincus T. A simplified twenty-eight-joint quantitative articular index in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1989; 32: 5317.
  • 52
    Kaye JJ, Callahan LF, Nance EP Jr, Brooks RH, Pincus T. Rheumatoid arthritis: explanatory power of specific radiographic findings for patient clinical status. Radiology 1987; 165: 7538.
  • 53
    Kaye JJ, Fuchs HA, Moseley JW, Nance EP Jr, Callahan LF, Pincus T. Problems with the Steinbrocker staging system for radiographic assessment of the rheumatoid hand and wrist. Invest Radiol 1990; 25: 53644.
  • 54
    Fuchs HA, Pincus T. Reduced joint counts in controlled clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 4705.
  • 55
    Prevoo MLL, van't Hof MA, Kuper HH, van Leeuwen MA, van de Putte LBA, van Riel PLCM. Modified disease activity scores that include twenty-eight-joint counts: development and validation in a prospective longitudinal study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 448.
  • 56
    Feinstein AR. An additional basic science for clinical medicine. II. The limitations of randomized trials. Ann Intern Med 1983; 99: 54450.
  • 57
    BaumJ, ZiffM, McCartyDJ, editors. Arthritis and allied conditions. 11th ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Fibiger; 1989.
  • 58
    Kazis LE, Anderson JJ, Meenan RF. Effect sizes for interpreting changes in health status. Med Care 1989; 27: S178-89.
  • 59
    National Center for Health Statistics, US Department of Health. Vital statistics of the United States 1973: volume II–mortality, part A. Rockville (MD): US Government Printing Office; 1977.
  • 60
    Cox DR, Oakes D. Analysis of survival data. London: Chapman and Hall; 1984.
  • 61
    Abruzzo JL. Rheumatoid arthritis and mortality. Arthritis Rheum 1982; 25: 10203.
  • 62
    Mitchell DM, Spitz PW, Young DY, Bloch DA, McShane DJ, Fries JF. Survival, prognosis, and causes of death in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1986; 29: 70614.
  • 63
    Wolfe F, Mitchell DM, Sibley JT, Fries JF, Bloch DA, Williams CA, et al. The mortality of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 48194.
  • 64
    Bacon PA, Moots RJ, Exley E, Luqmani R, Rasmussen N. VITAL assessment of vasculitis–workshop report. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1995; 13: 2758.
  • 65
    Gladman DD, Goldsmith CH, Urowitz MB, Bacon P, Bombardier C, Isenberg D, et al. Sensitivity to change of 3 systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity indices: international validation. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 146871.
  • 66
    Kazis LE, Anderson JJ, Meenan RF. Health status as a predictor of mortality in rheumatoid arthritis: a five-year study. J Rheumatol 1990; 17: 60913.
  • 67
    Bellamy N. Prognosis in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1991; 18: 12779.
  • 68
    Erhardt CC, Mumford PA, Venables PJW, Maini RN. Factors predicting a poor life prognosis in rheumatoid arthritis: an eight year prospective study. Ann Rheum Dis 1989; 48: 713.
  • 69
    Eberhardt KB, Jensen LT, Horslev-Peterson K, Pettersson H, Lorenzen I, Wollheim FA. Serum amino terminal type III procollagen peptide in early rheumatoid arthritis: relation to disease activity and progression joint damage. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1990; 8: 33540.
  • 70
    Woolf AD, Hall ND, Goulding NJ, Kantharia B, Maymo J. Predictors of the long-term outcome of early synovitis: a 5-year follow-up study. Br J Rheumatol 1991; 30: 2514.
  • 71
    Wolfe F, Ross K, Hawley DJ, Roberts FK, Cathey MA. The prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis and undifferentiated polyarthritis syndrome in the clinic: a study of 1141 patients. J Rheumatol 1993; 20: 20059.
  • 72
    Hassfeld W, Steiner G, Graninger W, Witzmann G, Schweitzer H, Smolen JS. Autoantibody to the nuclear antigen RA33: a marker for early rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1993; 32: 199203.
  • 73
    Tunn EJ, Bacon PA. Differentiating persistent from self-limiting symmetrical synovitis in an early arthritis clinic. Br J Rheumatol 1993; 32: 97103.
  • 74
    Gough A, Faint J, Salmon M, Hassell A, Wordsworth P, Pilling D, et al. Genetic typing of patients with inflammatory arthritis at presentation can be used to predict outcome. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 116670.
  • 75
    Van Zeben D, Rook GAW, Hazes JMW, Zwinderman AH, Zhang Y, Ghelani S, et al. Early agalactosylation of IgG is associated with a more progressive disease course in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: results of a followup study. Br J Rheumatol 1990; 33: 3643.
  • 76
    Jokinen El, Mottonen TT, Hannonen PJ, Makela M, Arvilommi HS. Prediction of severe rheumatoid arthritis using Epstein-Barr virus. Br J Rheumatol 1994; 33: 91722.
  • 77
    Heliovaara M, Aho K, Knekt P, Aromaa A, Maatela J, Reunanen A. Rheumatoid factor, chronic arthritis and mortality. Ann Rheum Dis 1995; 54: 8114.
  • 78
    Brennan P, Harrison B, Barrett E, Chakravarty K, Scott D, Silman A, et al. A simple algorithm to predict the development of radiological erosions in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: prospective cohort study. BMJ 1996; 313: 4716.
  • 79
    Pincus T. Why should rheumatologists collect patient self-report questionnaires in routine rheumatologic care? Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1995; 21: 271317.
  • 80
    Wolfe F, Pincus T. Data collection in the clinic. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1995; 21: 32158.
  • 81
    Pincus T. Documenting quality management in rheumatic disease: are patient questionnaires the best (and only) method? Arthritis Care Res 1996; 9: 33958.
  • 82
    Pincus T, Summey JA, Soraci SA Jr, Wallston KA, Hummon NP. Assessment of patient satisfaction in activities of daily living using a modified Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire. Arthritis Rheum 1983; 26: 134653.
  • 83
    Wilske KR, Healey LA. Remodeling the pyramid–a concept whose time has come. J Rheumatol 1989; 16: 5657.
  • 84
    Pincus T, Wolfe F. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: challenges to traditional paradigms. Ann Intern Med 1991; 115: 8257.
  • 85
    Pincus T. The case for early intervention in rheumatoid arthritis. J Autoimmun 1992; 5 Suppl A: 20926.
  • 86
    Hoffmeister RT. Methotrexate therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: 15 years experience. Am J Med 1983; 75 Suppl 6A: 6973.
  • 87
    Weinblatt ME, Coblyn JS, Fox DA, Fraser PA, Holdsworth DE, Glass DN, et al. Efficacy of low-dose methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med 1985; 312: 81822.
  • 88
    Kremer JL, Lee JK. The safety and efficacy of the use of methotrexate in long-term therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1986; 29: 82231.
  • 89
    Wolfe F, Hawley DJ, Cathey MA. Termination of slow acting antirheumatic therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: a 14-year prospective evaluation of 1017 consecutive starts. J Rheumatol 1990; 17: 9941002.
  • 90
    Sany J, Anaya JM, Lussiez V, Couret M, Combe B, Daures J-P. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with methotrexate: a prospective open longterm study of 191 cases. J Rheumatol 1991; 18: 13237.
  • 91
    Pincus T, Marcum SB, Callahan LF. Longterm drug therapy for rheumatoid arthritis in seven rheumatology private practices: II. Second line drugs and prednisone. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 188594.
  • 92
    Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Boers M, Bombardier C, Furst D, Goldsmith C, et al. American College of Rheumatology preliminary definition of improvement in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 72735.
  • 93
    Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Boers M, Bombardier C, Chernoff M, Fried B, et al. The American College of Rheumatology preliminary core set of disease activity measures for rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials. Arthritis Rheum 1993; 36: 72940.
  • 94
    Tugwell P, Boers M, OMERACT Committee. Proceedings of the OMERACT conference on outcome measures in rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials, Maastricht, The Netherlands. J Rheumatol 1993; 20: 52791.
  • 95
    Van Riel PLCM. Provisional guidelines for measuring disease activity in clinical trials on rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1994; 31: 7934.
  • 96
    Pincus T, Callahan LF. Remodeling the pyramid or remodeling the paradigms concerning rheumatoid arthritis–lessons from Hodgkin's disease and coronary artery disease. J Rheumatol 1990; 17: 15825.
  • 97
    Emery P, Salmon M. Early rheumatoid arthritis: time to aim for remission? Ann Rheum Dis 1995; 54: 9447.