• 1
    Goldenberg DL. Fibromyalgia syndrome: an emerging but controversial condition. JAMA 1987; 257: 27827.
  • 2
    Wolfe F. Fibromyalgia. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1990; 16: 68198.
  • 3
    Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB, Bennett RM, Bombardier C, Goldenberg DL, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia: report of the multicenter criteria committee. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33: 16072.
  • 4
    Moldofsky H, Scarisbrick P, England R, Smythe H. Musculoskeletal symptoms and non-REM sleep disturbance in patients with “fibrositis syndrome” and healthy subjects. Psychosom Med 1975; 37: 34151.
  • 5
    Bennett RM. Beyond fibromyalgia: ideas on etiology and treatment. J Rheumatol 1989; 16 Suppl 19: 18591.
  • 6
    Vaerøy H, Qiao Z-G, Mørkrid L, Førre ø. Altered sympathetic nervous system response in patients with fibromyalgia (fibrositis syndrome). J Rheumatol 1989; 16: 14605.
  • 7
    Van Denderen JC, Boersma JW, Hollander AP, van Neerbos BR. Physiological effects of exhaustive physical exercise in primary fibromyalgia syndrome: is PFS a disorder of neuroendocrine reactivity? Scand J Rheumatol 1992; 21: 357.
  • 8
    Bennett RM, Jacobsen S. Muscle function and origin of pain in fibromyalgia. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol 1984; 8: 72146.
  • 9
    Simms RW. Is there muscle pathology in fibromyalgia syndrome? Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1996; 22: 24566.
  • 10
    Ahles TA, Yunus MB, Riley SD, Bradley JM, Masi AT. Psychological factors associated with primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 1984; 27: 11016.
  • 11
    Wolfe F, Cathey MA, Kleinheskel SM, Amos SP, Hoffman RG, Young DY, et al. Psychological status in primary fibrositis and fibrositis associated with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1984; 11: 5006.
  • 12
    Yunus MB, Ahles TA, Aldag JC, Masi AT. Relationship of clinical features with psychological status in primary fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 1991; 34: 1521.
  • 13
    Potts MK, Silverman SL. The importance of aspects of treatment for fibromyalgia (fibrositis): differences between patient and physician views. Arthritis Care Res 1990; 3: 118.
  • 14
    Campbell SM, Clark S, Tindall EA, Forehand ME, Bennett RM. Clinical characteristics of fibrositis. I. A “blinded,” controlled study of symptoms and tender points Arthritis Rheum 1983; 26: 81724.
  • 15
    Yunus MB, Masi AT, Calabro JJ, Miller KA, Feigenbaum SL. Primary fibromyalgia (fibrositis): clinical study of 50 patients with matched normal controls. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1981; 11: 15171.
  • 16
    Simms RW, Gunderman J, Howard G, Goldenberg DL. The alpha-delta sleep abnormality in fibromyalgia [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31 Suppl 4: S100.
  • 17
    Yunus M. Diagnosis, etiology and management of fibromyalgia syndrome: an update. Compr Ther 1988; 14: 820.
  • 18
    Miller DR, Seifert RD. Management of fibromyalgia, a distinct rheumatologic syndrome. Clin Pharmacol 1987; 6: 77886.
  • 19
    Henrikksson CM. Long-term effects of fibromyalgia on everyday life: a study of 56 patients. Scand J Rheumatol 1994; 23: 3641.
  • 20
    Gaston-Johannsson F, Gustafsson M, Felldin R, Sanne H. A comparative study of feelings, attitudes and behaviors of patients with fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis. Soc Sci Med 1990; 31: 9417.
  • 21
    Henrikksson C, Gundmark I, Bengtsson A, Ek A. Living with fibromyalgia: consequences for everyday life. Clin J Pain 1992; 8: 12844.
  • 22
    Bolwijn PH, van Santen-Hoeufft MHS, Baars HMJ, van der Linden S. Social network characteristics in fibromyalgia or rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res 1994; 7: 469.
  • 23
    Uveges JM, Parker JC, Smarr KL, McGowan JF, Lyon MG, Irvin WS, et al. Psychological symptoms in primary fibromyalgia syndrome: relationship to pain, life stress, and sleep disturbance. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33: 127983.
  • 24
    Goldenberg DL, Felson DT, Dinerman H. A randomized, controlled trial of amitriptyline and naproxen in the treatment of patients with primary fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 1986; 29: 13717.
  • 25
    Goldenberg DL. Management of fibromyalgia syndrome. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1989; 15: 499512.
  • 26
    Rice JR. “Fibrositis” syndrome. Med Clin North Am 1986; 70: 45568.
  • 27
    Campbell SM, Gatter RA, Clark S, Bennett RM. A double blind study of cyclobenzaprine versus placebo in patients with fibrositis [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum 1984; 27 Suppl 4: S76.
  • 28
    Carette S, McCain GA, Bell DA, Fam AG. Evaluation of amitriptyline in primary fibrositis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arthritis Rheum 1986; 29: 6559.
  • 29
    Hollandsworth J. Physiology and behavior therapy. New York: Plenum; 1986.
  • 30
    Kanfer FH, Schefft BK. Guiding the process of therapeutic change. Champaign (IL): Research Press; 1988;
  • 31
    Lorig K, Holmon H. Arthritis self-management studies: a twelve year review. Health Educ Q 1993; 20: 1728.
  • 32
    Bradley LA, Young LD, Anderson KO, Turner RA, Agudelo CA, McDaniel LK, et al. Effects of psychological therapy on pain behavior of rheumatoid arthritis patients: treatment outcome and six-month followup. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 110514.
  • 33
    Bradley LA, Young LD, Anderson KO, Turner RA, Agudelo CA, McDaniel LK, et al. Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on rheumatoid arthritis pain behavior: one year follow-up. In: DubnerR, GebhartGF, BondMR, editors. Pain research and clinical management, 3 (proceedings of the Vth World Congress on Pain). Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1988. p. 3104.
  • 34
    Parker JC, Frank RG, Beck NC, Smarr KL, Buescher KL, Phillips LR, et al. Pain management in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a cognitive-behavioral approach. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 593601.
  • 35
    Keefe FJ, Caldwell DS, Williams DA, Gil KM, Mitchell D, Robertson C, et al. Pain coping skills training in the management of osteoarthritic knee pain: a comparative study. Behav Ther 1990; 21: 4962.
  • 36
    Keefe FJ, Caldwell DS, Williams DA, Gil K, Mitchell D, Robertson D, et al. Pain coping skills training in the management of osteoarthritic knee pain. II. Follow-up results. Behav Ther 1990; 21: 43547.
  • 37
    Nielson WR, Walker C, McCain GA. Cognitive behavioral treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: preliminary findings. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 98103.
  • 38
    Kaplan KH, Goldenberg DL, Galvin-Nadeau M. The impact of meditation-based stress reduction program on fibromyalgia. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1993; 15: 2849.
  • 39
    Bennett RM, Burckhardt CS, Clark SR, O'Reilly CA, Wiens AN, Campbell SM. Group treatment of fibromyalgia: a 6 month outpatient program. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 5218.
  • 40
    Kleijnen JGVM, Gerards FM, Kok G, van Santen-Moeufft M, van der Linden S, Houben H. Self management and the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial [abstract]. Arthritis Care Res 1992; 5: S18.
  • 41
    De Voogd JN, Knipping AA, de Blecourt AC, van Rijswijk MH. Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with psycho-motor therapy and marital counseling [abstract]. Scand J Rheumatol Suppl 1992; 94: 49.
  • 42
    Vlaeyen JWS, Teeken-Gruben NJG, Goossens MEJB, Rutten-van Mölken MPMH. Pelt RAGB, van Eek H, et al. Cognitive-educational treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized clinical trial. I. Clinical effects. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 123745.
  • 43
    Nicassio PM, Radojevic V, Weisman MH, Schuman C, Kim J, Schoenfeld-Smith K, et al. A comparison of behavioral and educational interventions for fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 1997; 24: 20007.
  • 44
    Ferraccioli G, Ghirelli L, Scita F, Nolli M, Mozzani M, Fontana S, et al. EMG-biofeedback training in fibromyalgia syndrome. J Rheumatol 1987; 14: 8205.
  • 45
    Moldofsky H, Scarisbrick P. Induction of neurasthenic musculoskeletal pain syndrome by selective sleep stage deprivation. Psychosom Med 1976; 38: 3544.
  • 46
    Bennett RM, Clark SR, Goldberg L, Nelson D, Bonafede RP, Porter J, et al. Aerobic fitness in patients with fibrositis: a controlled study of respiratory gas exchange and 133xenon clearance from exercising muscle. Arthritis Rheum 1989; 32: 45460.
  • 47
    McCain GA, Bell DA, Mai FM, Halliday PD. A controlled study of the effects of a supervised cardiovascular fitness training program on the manifestations of primary fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 113541.
  • 48
    Mannerkorpi K, Burckhardt CS, Bjelle A. Physical performance characteristics of women with fibromyalgia. Arthritis Care Res 1994; 7: 1239.
  • 49
    Jacobsen S, Holm B. Muscle strength and endurance compared to aerobic capacity in primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1992; 10: 41920.
  • 50
    Bengtsson A, Henriksson KG, Larson J. Reduced high-energy phosphate levels in the painful muscles of patients with primary fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 1986; 29: 81721.
  • 51
    Lund N, Thorborg P. Muscle tissue oxygenation pressure in primary fibromyalgia. Scand J Rheumatol 1986; 15: 16573.
  • 52
    Elert JE, Rantapaa-Dahlqvist SB, Hernriksson-Larson K, Lorentzon R, Gerdle B. Muscle performance, electromyography and fiber type composition in fibromyalgia and work-related myalgia. Scand J Rheumatol 1992; 21: 2834.
  • 53
    Jacobsen S, Danneskiold-Samsoe B. Isometric and isokinetic muscle strength in patients with fibrositis syndrome. Scand J Rheumatol 1987; 16: 615.
  • 54
    Jacobsen S, Danneskiold-Samsoe B. Dynamic muscular endurance in primary fibromyalgia compared with chronic myofascial pain syndrome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992; 72: 1703.
  • 55
    Mengshoel AM, Forre O, Komnaes HB. Muscle strength and aerobic capacity in primary fibromyalgia. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1990; 8: 4759.
  • 56
    Cathey MA, Wolfe F, Kleinheksel SM. Functional ability and work status in patients with fibromyalgia. Arthritis Care Res 1988; 1: 8598.
  • 57
    McCain GA. Role of physical fitness training in the fibrositis/fibromyalgia syndrome. Am J Med 1986; 81: 737.
  • 58
    Janal MN, Colt E, Clarke WC, Glusman M. Pain sensitivity and plasma endocrine levels in man following long distance running: effects of naloxone. Pain 1984; 19: 1325.
  • 59
    Clark SR. Prescribing exercise for fibromyalgia patients. Arthritis Care Res 1994; 7: 2215.
  • 60
    Taylor CB, Sallis JF, Needle R. The relation of physical activity and exercise to mental health. Public Health Rep 1985; 100: 195202.
  • 61
    Hoydalsmo O, Johannsen I, Harstad H, Jacobsen S, Kryger P. Effects of multidisciplinary training programme in fibromyalgia [abstract]. Scand J Rheumatol Suppl 1992; 94: 51.
  • 62
    Banwell B, Box J, Fiechtner J. Grip strength in fibromyalgia [abstract]. Arthritis Care Res 1992; 5: S18.
  • 63
    Mengshoel AM, Komnaes HB, Forre O. The effects of 20 weeks of physical fitness training in female patients with fibromyalgia. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1992; 10: 3459.
  • 64
    Nichols DS, Glenn TM. Effects of aerobic, exercise on pain perception, affect, and level of disability in individuals with fibromyalgia. Phys Ther 1994; 74: 32732.
  • 65
    Martin L, Nutting A, MacIntosh BR, Edworthy SM, Butterwick D, Cook J. An exercise program in the treatment of fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 10503.
  • 66
    Wigers SH, Stiles TC, Vogel PA. Effects of aerobic exercise versus stress management treatment in fibromyalgia: a 4.5year prospective study Scand J Rheumatol 1996; 25: 7786.
  • 67
    Bennett RM. Physical fitness and muscle metabolism in the fibromyalgia syndrome: an overview. J Rheumatol 1989; 16 Suppl 19: 289.
  • 68
    Keefe FJ, van Horn Y. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of rheumatoid arthritis pain: maintaining treatment gains. Arthritis Care Res 1993; 6: 21322.
  • 69
    Burckhardt CS, Mannerkorpi K, Hedenberg L, Bjelle A. A randomized, controlled clinical trial of education and physical training for women with fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 71420.
  • 70
    Buckelew SP, Parker JC, Conway R, Kay D, Minor M, Hewett J, et al. The effects of biofeedback and exercise on fibromyalgia: a controlled trial. 13th Annual Meeting of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine; 1992 Nov 13–17; San Francisco, CA.
  • 71
    Schiaffino KM, Revenson TA, Gibofsky A. Assessing the impact of self-efficacy beliefs on adaptation to rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res 1991; 4: 1507.
  • 72
    Buckelew SP, Parker JC, Keefe FJ, Deuser WE, Crews TM, Conway R, et al. Self-efficacy and pain behavior among subjects with fibromyalgia. Pain 1994; 59: 37784.
  • 73
    Buckelew SP, Murray SE, Hewett JE, Johnson J, Huyser B. Self-efficacy, pain, and physical activity among fibromyalgia subjects. Arthritis Care Res 1995; 8: 4350.
  • 74
    Buckelew SP, Huyser B, Hewett JE, Parker JC, Johnson JC, Conway R, et al. Self-efficacy predicting outcome among fibromyalgia subjects. Arthritis Care Res 1996; 9: 97104.
  • 75
    Martin MY, Bradley LA, Alexander RW, Alarcón GS, Triana-Alexander M, Aaron LA, et al. Coping strategies predict disability in patients with primary fibromyalgia. Pain 1996; 68: 4553.
  • 76
    Nicassio PM, Schoenfeld-Smith K, Radojevic V, Schuman C. Pain coping mechanisms in fibromyalgia: relationship to pain and functional outcomes. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 15528.
  • 77
    Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC. Stages of change in the modification of problem behaviors. Prog Behav Modif 1992; 28: 183218.
  • 78
    Aaron LA, Bradley LA, Alarcón GS, Alexander RW, Triana-Alexander M, Martin MY, et al. Psychiatric diagnoses in patients with fibromyalgia are related to health care-seeking behavior rather than to illness. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 43645.