• 1
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy people 2010: understanding and improving health. 2nd ed. Washington (DC): U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.
  • 2
    U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy people 2010. Accessed October 13, 2003. URL:
  • 3
    Felson DT, Naimark A, Anderson JJ, Kazis L, Castelli W, Meenan RF. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly: the Framingham osteoarthritis study. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 9148.
  • 4
    U.S. Census Bureau. Census 2000. Accessed October 13, 2003. URL:
  • 5
    Chang RW, Pellissier JM, Hazen GB. A cost effectiveness analysis of total hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis of the hip. JAMA 1996; 275: 85865.
  • 6
    Laskin RS. Total knee replacement in patients older than 85 years. Clin Orthop Rel Res 1999; 367: 439.
  • 7
    Orbell S, Espley A, Johnston M, Rowley D. Health benefits of joint replacement surgery for patients with osteoarthritis: prospective evaluation using independent assessments in Scotland. J Epidemiol Community Health 1998; 52: 56470.
  • 8
    Heck DA, Robinson RL, Partridge CM, Lubitz RM, Freund DA. Patient outcomes after knee replacement. Clin Orthop Rel Res 1998; 356: 93110.
  • 9
    Wilson MG, May DS, Kelly JJ. Racial differences in the use of total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis among older Americans. Ethn Dis 1994; 4: 5767.
  • 10
    Peterson MGE, Hollenberg JP, Szatrowski TP, Johanson NA, Mancuso CA, Charlson ME. Geographic variations in the rates of elective total hip and knee arthroplasties among Medicare beneficiaries in the United States. J Bone Joint Surgery Am 1992; 74: 15309.
  • 11
    Katz BP, Freund DA, Heck DA, Dittus RS, Paul JE, Wright J, et al. Demographic variation in the rate of knee replacement: a multi-year analysis. Health Serv Res 1996; 31: 12539.
  • 12
    Escarce JJ, Epstein DR, Colby DC, Schwartz JS. Racial differences in the elderly's use of medical procedures and diagnostic tests. Am J Public Health 1993; 83: 94854.
  • 13
    Katz JN, Wright EA, Guadagnoli E, Liang MH, Karlson EW, Cleary P. Differences between men and women undergoing major orthopedic surgery for degenerative arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 68794.
  • 14
    Felson T, Zhang Y, Hannan MT, Naimark A, Weissman BN, Aliabadi P, et al. The incidence and natural history of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 15005.
  • 15
    Hawker GA, Wright JG, Coyte PC, Williams JI, Harvey B, Glazier R, et al. Differences between men and women in the rate of use of hip and knee arthroplasty. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 101622.
  • 16
    Lewis CE. Variations in the incidence of surgery. N Engl J Med 1969; 281: 8804.
  • 17
    Wennberg J, Gittleson A. Small area variation in health care delivery: a population-based information system can guide planning and regulatory decision-making. Science 1973; 182: 11028.
  • 18
    Fortin PA, Clarke AE, Joseph L, Liang MH, Tanzer M, Ferland D, et al. Outcomes of total hip and knee replacement: preoperative functional status predicts outcomes at six months after surgery. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 17228.
  • 19
    Krueger RA. Focus groups: a practical guide for applied research. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage Publications; 1994.
  • 20
    Freund D, Lave J, Clancy C, Hawker G, Hasselblad V, Keller R, et al. Patient outcomes research teams: contribution to outcomes and effectiveness research. Annu Rev Public Health 1999; 20: 33759.
  • 21
    Wright JG, Coyte P, Hawker G, Bombardier C, Cooke D, Heck D, et al. Variation in orthopedic surgeons' perceptions of the indications for and outcomes of knee replacement. CMAJ 1995; 152: 68797.
  • 22
    Karlson EW, Daltroy LH, Liang M, Eaton HE, Katz JN. Gender differences in patient preferences may underlie differential utilization of elective surgery. Am J Med 1997; 102: 52430.
  • 23
    Mamlin LA, Melfi CA, Parchman ML, Gutierrez B, Allen DI, Katz BP, et al. Management of osteoarthritis of the knee by primary care physicians. Arch Fam Med 1998; 7: 5637.
  • 24
    Hawker G, Wright J, Coyte P, Paul J, Dittus R, Croxford R, et al. Health-related quality of life after knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1998; 80: 16373.
  • 25
    Mazzuca SA, Brandt KD, Katz BP, Dittus RS, Freund DA, Lubitz R, et al. Comparison of general internists, family physicians, and rheumatologists managing patients with symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Care Res 1997; 10: 28999.
  • 26
    Ritter M, Mamlin LA, Melfi CA, Katz BP, Freund DA, Arthur DS. Outcome implications for the timing of bilateral total knee arthroplasties. Clin Orthop Rel Res 1997; 345: 99105.
  • 27
    Mancuso CA, Sculco TP, Wickiewicz TL, Jones EC, Robbins L, Warren RF, et al. Patients' expectations of knee surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2001; 83: 100512.
  • 28
    Neuhauser D, Jean-Baptiste R. Differential provision or acquisition of health care is related to one's race or gender. Ethn Dis 1999; 9: 1456.
  • 29
    Kagawa-Singer M, Blackhall LJ. Negotiating cross-cultural issues at the end of life: “you got to go where he lives”. JAMA 2001; 286: 29933001.
  • 30
    Borum ML, Lynn J, Zhong Z. The effects of patient race on outcomes in seriously ill patients in SUPPORT: an overview of economic impact, medical intervention, and end-of-life decisions: study to understand prognoses and preferences for outcomes and risks of treatments. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000; 48: S1948.
  • 31
    Jernigan JC, Trauth JM, Neal-Ferguson D, Cartier-Ulrich C. Factors that influence cancer screening in older African American men and women: focus group findings. Fam Community Health 2001; 24: 2733.
  • 32
    Tucker CM, Petersen S, Herman KC, Fennell RS, Bowling B, Pedersen T, et al. Self-regulation predictors of medication adherence among ethnically different pediatric patients with renal transplants. J Pediatr Psychol 2001; 26: 45564.
  • 33
    Chang HJ, Thisted RA, Sittig DL, Mrtek RG. Internists display three distinct patterns of referral for total knee arthroplasty [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42 Suppl 9: S216.
  • 34
    Chang HJ, Alejandro IP, Gorawara-Bhat R, Mingay DJ, Jacobs J, Rosenberg A, et al. Racial variation in decision-making among total knee arthroplasty candidates. J Invest Med 1999; 47: 248A.
  • 35
    Rhodes LA. Studying biomedicine as a cultural system. In: Johnson TM, Sargent CF, editors. Medical anthropology: contemporary theory and method. New York: Praeger; 1990. p. 15973.
  • 36
    Pratt L, Seligman A, Reader G. Physicians' views on the level of medical information among patients. In: Klein N, editor. Culture, curers and contagion. Novato (CA): Chandler & Sharp Publishers; 1979. p. 11928.
  • 37
    Gerteis M, Edgman-Levitan S, Daley J, Delbanco TL, editors. Through the patient's eyes: understanding and promoting patient-centered care. San Francisco (CA): Jossey-Bass; 1993.
  • 38
    Johnson CL. Fictive kin among oldest old African Americans in the San Francisco Bay area. J Gerontol Soc Sci 1999; 54B: S36875.
  • 39
    Matthews AK, Sellergren SA, Manfredi C, Williams M. Factors influencing medical information seeking among African American cancer patients. J Health Commun 2002; 7: 20519.
  • 40
    Powe BD. Cancer fatalism among African-Americans: a review of the literature. Nurs Outlook 1996; 44: 1821.
  • 41
    Freimuth VS. Narrowing the cancer knowledge gap between whites and African Americans. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 1993; 14: 8191.
  • 42
    Pearce TO. Lay medical knowledge in an African context. In: Lindenbaum S, Lock M, editors. Knowledge, power, and practice: the anthropology of medicine and everyday life. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press; 1993. p. 15065.
  • 43
    Gamble VN. Under the shadow of Tuskegee: African Americans and health care. Am J Public Health 1997; 87: 17738.
  • 44
    Thomas SB, Curran JW. Tuskegee: from science to conspiracy to metaphor. Am J Med Sci 1999; 317: 14.
  • 45
    Corbie-Smith G, Thomas SB, Williams MV, Moody-Ayers S. Attitudes and beliefs of African Americans toward participation in medical research. J Gen Intern Med 1999; 14: 53746.
  • 46
    Blake VA, Allegrante JP, Robbins L, Mancuso CA, Peterson MG, Esdaile JM, et al. Racial differences in social network experience and perceptions of benefit of arthritis treatments among New York City Medicare beneficiaries with self-reported hip and knee pain. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 47: 36671.
  • 47
    James SA, Strogatz DS, Wing SB, Ramsey DL. Socioeconomic status, John Henryrism, and hypertension in blacks and whites. Am J Epidemiol 1987; 126: 66473.