Scleroderma is an autoimmune disorder of unknown etiology. A genetic contribution has been demonstrated, and genes influencing activation of the immune system have been potentially identified as candidate genes in this process. The repertoire of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) that are involved in the activation of T cells and natural killer cells is highly variable. Recently, an association of KIR2DS2 with vasculitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis has been reported. Because scleroderma is characterized by an involvement of the vascular system, we sought to determine whether KIR2DS2 is associated with scleroderma.