• 1
    Tan EM, Smolen JS, McDougal JS, Klippel JH, Fritzler MJ, Gordon TP. A critical evaluation of enzyme immunoassay kits for the detection of antinuclear antibodies of defined specificities. II. Potential for quantitation of antibody content. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 6874.
  • 2
    Cassidy JT, Levinson JE, Brewer EJ Jr. The development of classification criteria for children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Bull Rheum Dis 1989; 38: 17.
  • 3
    Kasukawa R. Preliminary diagnostic criteria for classification of mixed connective tissue disease. In: Kasukawa R, Sharp GC, editors. Mixed connective tissue disease and anti-nuclear antibodies. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica; 1987. p. 417.
  • 4
    Alarcon-Segovia D, Villareal M. Classification and diagnostic criteria for mixed connective tissue disease. In: Kasukawa R, Sharp GC, editors. Mixed connective tissue disease and anti-nuclear antibodies. Amsterdam: Excepta Medica; 1987. p. 3340.
  • 5
    Leavitt RY, Fauci AS, Bloch DA, Michel BA, Hunder GG, Arend WP, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of Wegener's granulomatosis. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33: 11017.
  • 6
    Subcommittee for Scleroderma Criteria of the American Rheumatism Association Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee. Preliminary criteria for the classification of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Arthritis Rheum 1980; 23: 58190.
  • 7
    Savage COS, Winearls CG, Evand DJ, Rees AJ, Lockwood CM. Microscopic polyarteritis: presentation, pathology and prognosis. Q J Med 1985; 56: 46783.
  • 8
    Jennette JC, Falk RJ, Andrassy K, Bacon PA, Churg J, Gross WL, et al. Nomenclature of systemic vasculitides: the proposal of an international consensus conference. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 18792.
  • 9
    Wilson WA, Gharavi AE, Koike T, Lockshin MD, Branch DW, Piette JC, et al. International consensus statement on preliminary classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome: report of an international workshop. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 130911.
  • 10
    Targoff IN. Autoantibodies in polymyositis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1992; 18: 45582.
  • 11
    Kuwana M, Kaburaki J, Okano Y, Tojo T, Homma M. Clinical and prognostic associations based on serum antinuclear antibodies in Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 7583.
  • 12
    Cervera R, Khamashta MA, Font J, Sebastiani GD, Gil A, Lavilla P, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical and immunologic patterns of disease expression in a cohort of 1000 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 1993; 72: 11324.
  • 13
    Wiik AS. Clinical use of serological tests for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies: what do the studies say? Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2001; 27: 799813.
  • 14
    Mustila A, Paimela L, Leirisalo-Repo M, Huhtala H, Miettinen A. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: an early marker of progressive erosive disease. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 13717.
  • 15
    Permin H, Hørbov S, Wiik A, Knudsen JV. Antinuclear antibodies in juvenile chronic arthritis. Acta Paediatr Scand 1978; 67: 1815.
  • 16
    von Muhlen CA, Tan EM. Autoantibodies in the diagnosis of systemic rheumatic diseases. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1995; 24: 32358.
  • 17
    Van Eenennaam H, Vogelzangs JH, Bisschops L, Te Boome LC, Seelig HP, Renz M, et al. Autoantibodies against small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein complexes and their clinical associations. Clin Exp Immunol 2002; 130: 53240.
  • 18
    Vasiliauskiene L, Wiik A, Høier-Madsen M. Prevalence and clinical significance of antikeratin antibodies and other serological markers in Lithuanian patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2001; 60: 45966.
  • 19
    Bläss S, Engel J-M, Burmester G-R. The immunologic homunculus in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 2499506.
  • 20
    Visser H, Le Cessie S, Vos K, Breedveld FC, Hazes JM. How to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis early: a prediction model for persistent (erosive) arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 35765.
  • 21
    ter Borg EJ, Horst G, Hummel EJ, Limburg PC, Kallenberg CG. Measurement of increases in anti–double-stranded DNA antibody levels as a predictor of disease exacerbation in systemic lupus erythematosus: a long-term, prospective study. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33: 63443.
  • 22
    Gladman DD, Urowitz MB, Keystone EC. Serologically active clinically quiescent systemic lupus erythematosus: a discordance between clinical and serologic features. Am J Med 1979; 66: 2105.
  • 23
    Barr SG, Zonana-Nacach A, Magder LS, Petri M. Patterns of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 26828.
  • 24
    Nossent JC, Huysen V, Smeenk RJ, Swaak AJ. Low avidity antibodies to double stranded DNA in systemic lupus erythematosus: a longitudinal study of their clinical significance. Ann Rheum Dis 1989; 48: 67782.
  • 25
    Savige J, Gillis D, Benson E, Davies D, Esnault V, Falk RJ, et al. International consensus statement on testing and reporting of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). Am J Clin Pathol 1999; 111: 50713.
  • 26
    Tan EM, Feltkamp TE, Smolen JS, Butcher B, Dawkins R, Fritzler MJ, et al. Range of antinuclear antibodies in “healthy” individuals. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 160111.
  • 27
    Smolen JS, Butcher B, Fritzler MJ, Gordon T, Hardin J, Kalden JR, et al. Reference sera for antinuclear antibodies. II. Further definition of antibody specificities in international antinuclear antibody reference sera by immunofluorescence and western blotting. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 4138.
  • 28
    Wiik A, Brimnes J, Heegaard NHH. Distinct differences in autoantigen specificity of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies in systemic vasculitides and other inflammatory diseases. Isr Med Assoc J 1999; 1: 47.
  • 29
    Wiik A. Neutrophil-specific autoantibodies in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Autoimmun Rev 2002; 1: 6772.
  • 30
    Kallenberg CGM, Wouda AA, Hoet MH, van Venrooij WJ. Development of connective tissue disease in patients presenting with Raynaud's phenomenon: a six year follow up with emphasis on the predictive value of antinuclear antibodies as detected by immunoblotting. Ann Rheum Dis 1988; 47: 63441.
  • 31
    Vlachoyiannopoulos PG, Drosos AA, Wiik A, Moutsopoulos HM. Patients with anticentromere antibodies, clinical features, diagnoses and evolution. Br J Rheumatol 1993; 32: 297301.
  • 32
    Asherson RA, Khamashta MA, Ordi-Ros J, Derksen RH, Machin SJ, Barquinero J, et al. The “primary” antiphospholipid syndrome: major clinical and serological features. Medicine (Baltimore) 1989; 68: 36674.
  • 33
    Merrild J. Pathogenesis and treatment of the antiphospholipid syndrome. In: Lahita RJ, editor. Systemic lupus erythematosus. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999. p. 887908.
  • 34
    Roubey RA. Autoantibodies to phospholipid-binding plasma proteins: a new view of lupus anticoagulants and other “antiphospholipid” autoantibodies. Blood 1994; 84: 285467.
  • 35
    Samarkos M, Davies KA, Gordon C, Walport MJ, Loizou S. IgG subclass distribution of antibodies against beta(2)-GP1 and cardiolipin in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and primary antiphospholipid syndrome, and their clinical associations. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2001; 40: 102632.
  • 36
    Keren DF, Nakamura R. Progress and controversies in autoimmune disease testing. Clin Lab Med 1997; 17: 48397.
  • 37
    Bayer PM, Bauerfeind S, Bienvenu J, Fabien N, Frei PC, Gilburd B, et al. Multicenter evaluation study on a new HEp2 ANA screening enzyme immune assay. J Autoimmun 1999; 13: 8993.
  • 38
    Wiik A. Testing for ANA and ANCA: diagnostic value and pitfalls. In: Hochberg MC, Silman AJ, Smolen JS, Weinblatt ME, Weisman MH, editors. Rheumatology. 3rd ed. London: Mosby; 2003. p. 21526.
  • 39
    Wiik A, Lam K. On the usability of extended DOORS for education and training, quality assurance and consensus formation. The EU CANTOR project HC 4003 (HC) 2000. Deliverable D09.1, version 2.1. The European Commission; 2001.
  • 40
    Geisler C, Hoier-Madsen M. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for autoantibodies against the nuclear protein Scl-70. J Immunol Methods 1985; 80: 2119.
  • 41
    Jethwa HS, Nachman PH, Falk RJ, Jennette JC. False-positive myeloperoxidase binding activity due to DNA/anti-DNA antibody complexes: a source for analytical error in serologic evaluation of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies. Clin Exp Immunol 2000; 121: 54450.
  • 42
    Harper JM, Thiru S, Lockwood CM, Cooke A. Myeloperoxidase autoantibodies distinguish vasculitis mediated by anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies from immune complex disease in MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice: a spontaneous model for human microscopic angiitis. Eur J Immunol 1998; 28: 221726.
  • 43
    Kumar V, Krasny S, Beutner EH. Specificity of the Crithidia luciliae method for detecting anti-DNA antibodies: effect of absorption for lipoproteins. Immunol Invest 1985; 14: 199210.
  • 44
    Deng JS, Rubin RL, Lipscomb MF, Sontheimer RD, Gilliam JN. Reappraisal of the specificity of the Crithidia luciliae assay for nDNA antibodies: evidence for histone antibody kinetoplast binding. Am J Clin Pathol 1984; 82: 44852.
  • 45
    Vogel JC, Roberts JL, Lewis EJ. A non-anti-DNA antibody detected with the Crithidia lucillae anti-DNA assay. N Engl J Med 1980; 303: 4589.
  • 46
    Keech CL, Howarth S, Coates T, Rischmueller M, McCluskey J, Gordon TP. Rapid and sensitive detection of anti-Ro (SS-A) antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence of 60kDa Ro HEp-2 transfectants. Pathology 1996; 28: 547.
  • 47
    Fritzler MJ, Hanson C, Miller J, Eystathioy T. Specificity of autoantibodies to SS-A/Ro on a transfected and overexpressed human 60 kDa Ro autoantigen substrate. J Clin Lab Anal 2002; 16: 1038.
  • 48
    Schellekens GA, Visser H, De Jong BA, van den Hoogen FH, Hazes JM, Breedveld FC, et al. The diagnostic properties of rheumatoid arthritis antibodies recognizing a cyclic citrullinated peptide. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 15563.
  • 49
    Kroot EJ, de Jong BA, van Leeuwen MA, Swinkels H, van den Hoogen FH, van 't Hof M, et al. The prognostic value of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody in patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 18315.
  • 50
    Ben-Chetrit E, Fox RI, Tan EM. Dissociation of immune responses to the SSA (Ro) 52-kd and 60-kd polypeptides in systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33: 34955.
  • 51
    Rutjes SA, Vree Egberts WT, Jongen P, Van Den HF, Pruijn GJ, van Venrooij WJ. Anti-Ro52 antibodies frequently co-occur with anti-Jo-1 antibodies in sera from patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Clin Exp Immunol 1997; 109: 3240.
  • 52
    Frank MB, McCubbin V, Trieu E, Wu Y, Isenberg DA, Targoff IN. The association of anti-Ro52 autoantibodies with myositis and scleroderma autoantibodies. J Autoimmun 1999; 12: 13742.
  • 53
    Buyon JP. Congenital heart block: autoimmune associated or autoimmune mediated? The Immunologist 1999; 7: 98103.
  • 54
    Horsfall AC. Autoantibodies and autoimmune disease: cause or consequence? Rheumatology in Europe 1995; 24: 137.
  • 55
    Emery P. The Roche rheumatology prize lecture: the optimal management of early rheumatoid disease: the key to preventing disability. Br J Rheumatol 1994; 33: 7658.
  • 56
    Kim JM, Weisman MH. When does rheumatoid arthritis begin and why do we need to know? Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 47384.
  • 57
    Bygren P, Rasmussen N, Isaksson B, Wieslander J. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, anti-GBM antibodies and anti-dsDNA antibodies in glomerulonephritis. Eur J Clin Invest 1992; 22: 78392.
  • 58
    Franssen C, Gans R, Kallenberg CGM, Hageluken C, Hoorntje S. Disease spectrum of patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies of defined specificity; distinct differences between patients with anti-proteinase 3 and anti-myeloperoxidase autoantibodies. J Intern Med 1998; 244: 20916.
  • 59
    Swaak T, Smeenk R. Detection of anti-dsDNA as a diagnostic tool: a prospective study in 441 non-systemic lupus erythematosus patients with anti-dsDNA antibody (anti-dsDNA). Ann Rheum Dis 1985; 44: 24551.
  • 60
    Swaak AJG, Aarden LA, Statius van Eps LW, Feltkamp TE. Anti-dsDNA and complement profiles as prognostic guides in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1979; 22: 22635.
  • 61
    Wiik A. Clinical use of serological tests for ANCA: what do the studies say? Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2001; 27: 799813.
  • 62
    Arnett FC, Edworthy SM, Bloch DA, McShane DJ, Fries JF, Cooper NS, et al. The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 31524.
  • 63
    Wiik A. Granulocyte-specific antinuclear antibodies: possible significance for the pathogenesis, clinical features and diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Allergy 1980; 35: 26389.
  • 64
    Tan EM, Cohen AS, Fries JF, Masi AT, McShane DJ, Rothfield NF, et al. The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1982; 25: 12717.
  • 65
    LeRoy EC, Black CM, Fleischmajer R, Jablowska S, Krieg T, Medsger T. Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis): classification, subsets and pathogenesis. J Rheumatol 1988; 15: 2025.
  • 66
    Medsger TA Jr, Oddis CV. Classification and diagnostic criteria for polymyositis and dermatomyositis. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 5815.
  • 67
    Targoff IN, Miller FW, Medsger TA Jr, Oddis CV. Classification criteria for the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1997; 9: 52735.
  • 68
    Fox RI, Robinson CA, Curd JG, Kozin F, Howell FV. Sjogren's syndrome: proposed criteria for classification. Arthritis Rheum 1986; 29: 57785.
  • 69
    Prause JU, Manthorpe R, Oxholm P, Schiodt M. Definition and criteria for Sjogren's syndrome used by the contributors to the first international seminar on Sjogren's syndrome—1986. Scand J Rheumatol Suppl 1986; 61: 1718.
  • 70
    Skopouli FN, Drosos AA, Papaioannou T, Moutsopoulos HM. Preliminary diagnostic criteria for Sjogren's syndrome. Scand J Rheumatol Suppl 1986; 61: 225.
  • 71
    Sharp GC, Irwin W, Tan EM, Gould G, Holman HR. Mixed connective tissue disease: an apparently distinct rheumatic disease syndrome associated with a specific antibody to an extractable nuclear antigen (ENA). Am J Med 1972; 52: 14859.
  • 72
    Masi AT, Hunder GG, Lie JT, Michel BA, Bloch DA, Arend WP, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of Churg-Strauss syndrome (allergic granulomatosis and angiitis). Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33: 1094100.