• 1
    Bolen J, Helmick CG, Sacks JJ, Langmaid G. Prevalence of self reported arthritis or chronic joint symptoms among adults: United States, 2001. MMRW Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2002; 51: 94850.
  • 2
    Blackwell DL, Collins JG, Coles R. Summary health statistics for US adults: National Health Interview Survey, 1997. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 10: 205; 2002.
  • 3
    Lawrence RC, Helmick CG, Arnett FC, Deyo RA, Felson DT, Giannini EH, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and selected musculoskeletal disorders in the United States. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 77899.
  • 4
    Creamer P, Hochberg MC. Osteoarthritis. Lancet 1997; 350: 5039.
  • 5
    Davis MA. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis. Clin Geriatr Med 1988; 4: 24155.
  • 6
    Felson DT, Naimark A, Anderson J, Kazis L, Castelli W, Meenan RF. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly: the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 9148.
  • 7
    Jokl P. Prevention of disuse muscle atrophy in chronic arthritides. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1990; 16: 83744.
  • 8
    Bunning RD, Materson RS. A rational program of exercise for patients with osteoarthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1991; 21(3 Suppl 2 ): 3343.
  • 9
    Carson GL, Strom BL, Soper KA, West SL, Morse ML. The association of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Arch Intern Med 1987; 147: 858.
  • 10
    Trappe TA, White F, Lambert CP, Cesar D, Hellerstein M, Evans WJ. Effect of ibuprofen and acetaminophen on postexercise muscle protein synthesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002; 282: E5516.
  • 11
    Moseley JB, O'Malley K, Petersen NJ, Menke TJ, Brody BA, Kuykendall DH, et al. A controlled trial of arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 818.
  • 12
    Thomas KS, Muir KR, Doherty M, Jones AC, O'Reilly SC, Bassey EJ. Home based exercise programme for knee pain and knee osteoarthritis: randomized controlled trial. BMJ 2002; 325: 7527.
  • 13
    Van Baar ME, Assendelft WJ, Dekker J, Oostendorp RA, Bijlsma JW. Effectiveness of exercise therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 13619.
  • 14
    Chamberlain MA, Care G, Harfield B. Physiotherapy in osteoarthritis of the knees: a controlled trial of hospital versus home exercises. Int Rehabil Med 1982; 4: 1016.
  • 15
    Ettinger WH Jr, Burns R, Messier SP, Applegate W, Rejeski WJ, Morgan T, et al. A randomized trial comparing aerobic exercise and resistance exercise with a health education program in older adults with knee osteoarthritis: the Fitness Arthritis and Seniors Trial (FAST). JAMA 1997; 227: 2531.
  • 16
    Kovar PA, Allegrante JP, MacKenzie CR, Peterson MG, Gutin B, Charlson ME. Supervised fitness walking in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1992; 116: 52934.
  • 17
    Minor MA, Hewett JE, Webel RR, Anderson SK, Kay DR. Efficacy of physical conditioning exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1989; 32: 1396405.
  • 18
    Fisher NM, Pendergrast DR, Glen EG, Calkins E. Muscle rehabilitation: its effect on muscular and functional performance of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1991; 72: 36774.
  • 19
    Davis MA, Ettinger WH, Neuhaus JM. Obesity and osteoarthritis of the knee: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I). Semin Arthritis Rheum 1990; 20(3 Suppl 1 ): 3441.
  • 20
    Anderson JJ, Felson DT. Factors associated with osteoarthritis of the knee in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I). Am J Epidemiol 1988; 128: 17989.
  • 21
    Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Naimark A, Walker AM, Meenan RF. Obesity and knee osteoarthritis: the Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med 1988; 109: 1824.
  • 22
    Felson DT. The epidemiology of knee osteoarthritis: results from the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1990; 20(3 Suppl 1 ): 4250.
  • 23
    Ettinger WH, Davis MA, Neuhaus JM, Mallon KP. Long-term physical functioning in persons with knee osteoarthritis from NHANES I: effects of comorbid medical conditions. J Clin Epidemiol 1994; 47: 80913.
  • 24
    Hartz AJ, Fischer ME, Bril G, Kelber S. The association of obesity with joint pain and osteoarthritis in the HANES data. J Chronic Dis 1986; 39: 3119.
  • 25
    Leach RE, Baumgard S, Broom J. Obesity: its relationship to osteoarthritis of the knee. Clin Orthop 1973; 93: 2713.
  • 26
    Messier SP. Osteoarthritis of the knee and its associated factors of age and obesity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994; 26: 144652.
  • 27
    Goldin RH, McAdam L, Louie JS, Gold R, Bluestone R. Clinical and radiological survey of the incidence of osteoarthritis among obese patients. Ann Rheum Dis 1976; 35: 34953.
  • 28
    Felson DT, Zhang Y, Anthony JM, Naimark A, Anderson JJ. Weight loss reduces the risk for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in women. Ann Intern Med 1992; 116: 5359.
  • 29
    American College of Rheumatology Subcommittee on Osteoarthritis Guidelines. Recommendations for the medical management of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee: 2000 update. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 190515.
  • 30
    Pendleton A, Arden N, Dougados M, Doherty M, Bannwarth B, Bijlsma JW, et al. EULAR recommendations for the management of knee osteoarthritis: report of a task force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutic Trials (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis 2000; 59: 93644.
  • 31
    Toda Y. The effect of energy restriction, walking, and exercise on lower extremity lean body mass in obese women with osteoarthritis of the knee. J Orthop Sci 2001; 6: 14854.
  • 32
    Messier SP, Loeser RF, Mitchell MN, Valle G, Morgan TP, Rejeski WJ, et al. Exercise and weight loss in obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis: a preliminary study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000; 48: 106272.
  • 33
    Huang MH, Chen CH, Chen TW, Wenig MC, Wang WT, Wang YL. The effects of weight reduction on the rehabilitation of patients with knee osteoarthritis and obesity. Arthritis Care Res 2000; 13: 398405.
  • 34
    Rejeski WJ, Focht BC, Messier SP, Morgan T, Pahor M, Pennix B. Obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis: weight loss, exercise, and quality of life. Health Psychol 2002; 21: 41926.
  • 35
    Kellgren JH, Lawrence JS. Radiological assessment of osteoarthrosis. Ann Rheum Dis 1957; 16: 494502.
  • 36
    Berry MJ, Brubaker PH, O'Toole ML, Rejeski WJ, Soberman J, Ribisl PM, et al. Estimation of VO2 in older individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee and cardiovascular disease. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28: 80814.
  • 37
    Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Espeland MA, Applegate WB, Ettinger WH Jr, Kostis JB, et al, and the TONE Collaborative Research Group. Sodium reduction and weight loss in the treatment of hypertension in older persons: a randomized controlled trial of nonpharmacologic interventions in the elderly (TONE). JAMA 1998; 279: 83946.
  • 38
    Cartwright DC, Zander A. Group dynamics: research and theory. New York: Harper & Row; 1953.
  • 39
    Bandura A. Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs (NJ): Prentice Hall; 1986.
  • 40
    Bellamy N, Buchanan WW, Goldsmith CH. Validation study of the WOMAC: a health status instrument for measuring clinically important patient relevant outcomes to antirheumatic drug therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. J Rheumatol 1988; 15: 183340.
  • 41
    Bellamy N. Outcome measurement in osteoarthritis clinical trials. J Rheumatol Suppl 1995; 43: 4951.
  • 42
    Rejeski WJ, Ettinger WH Jr, Schumaker S, James P, Burns R, Elam JT. Assessing performance-related disability in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1995; 3: 15767.
  • 43
    Altman R, Brandt K, Hochberg M, Moskowitz R, Bellamy N, Bloch DA, et al. Design and conduct of clinical trials of patients with osteoarthritis: recommendations from a task force of the Osteoarthritis Research Society. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1996; 4: 21743.
  • 44
    Lesquesne M. Quantitative measurements of joint space width during progression of osteoarthritis: chondrometry. In: KuettnerKE, GoldbergVM, editors. Osteoarthritic disorder. Rosemont (IL): American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons; 1995. p. 42744.
  • 45
    Messier SP, Glasser JL, Ettinger WH Jr, Craven TE, Miller ME. Declines in strength and balance in older adults with chronic knee pain: a 30-month longitudinal, observational study. Arthritis Rheum (Arthritis Care Res) 2002; 47: 1418.
  • 46
    Schultz AB. Mobility impairment in the elderly: challenges for biomechanics research. J Biomech 1992; 25: 51928.
  • 47
    Wood PD, Stefanick ML, Dreon DM, Frey-Hewitt B, Garay SC, Williams PT, et al. Changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins in overweight men during weight loss through dieting as compared with exercise. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 11739.
  • 48
    Frey-Hewitt B, Vranizan KM, Dreon DM, Wood PD. The effect of weight loss by dieting or exercise on resting metabolic rate in overweight men. Int J Obesity 1990; 14: 32734.
  • 49
    Williams RA, Foulsham BM. Weight reduction in osteoarthritis using phentermine. Practitioner 1981; 225: 2312.
  • 50
    King AC, Haskell WL, Taylor CB, Kraemer HC, DeBusk RF. Group- vs home-based exercise training in healthy older men and women: a community-based clinical trial. JAMA 1991; 266: 153542.