To describe biochemical findings and the spectrum of mevalonate kinase (MVK) gene mutations as well as an associated TNFRSF1A low-penetrance variant in a series of patients with clinical features of the hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with periodic fever syndrome (HIDS).
The MVK gene was sequenced in 8 children and 1 adult (including 2 siblings) fulfilling the clinical criteria for HIDS. In addition, sequencing of exons 2, 3, 4, and 6 of the TNFRSF1A gene was performed in patients with only one or no MVK mutation. Mevalonate kinase (MK) enzyme activity in leukocytes and renal excretion of mevalonic acid were also measured.
Mutations in the coding region of the MVK gene were detected in 6 patients, and the most common mutation was V377I. Among these patients were 2 novel mutations, both of which were located in exon 6. These novel mutations resulted in the substitution of tryptophan (TGG) by a stop codon (TGA) at amino acid position 188 (W188X) and in the exchange of valine (GTG) for alanine (GCG) at amino acid position 203 (V203A). In 1 patient, a combination of one MVK (V377I) mutation and one TNFRSF1A (R92Q) mutation was present. The patient's clinical phenotype resembled a mixture of variant-type HIDS and tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS). Her IgD values varied between normal and slightly increased, and the MK activity was in the low-normal range, while urinary mevalonate concentrations were always normal.
The genotype findings indicate that a relatively small number of genes may be involved in the clinical manifestation of HIDS, with low-penetrance TNFRSF1A variants possibly influencing the HIDS phenotype or MVK mutations contributing to TRAPS.