SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Schlesinger N, Schumacher HR Jr. Gout: can management be improved? Curr Opin Rheumatol 2001; 13: 2404.
  • 2
    Terkeltaub RA. Gout. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 164755.
  • 3
    Wortmann RL. Gout and hyperuricemia. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2002; 14: 2816.
  • 4
    Terkeltaub R. Pathogenesis and treatment of crystal-induced inflammation. In: KoopmanWJ, editor. Arthritis and allied conditions: a textbook of rheumatology. 14th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001. p. 232947.
  • 5
    Ghei M, Mihailescu M, Levinson D. Pathogenesis of hyperuricemia: recent advances. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2002; 4: 2704.
  • 6
    Fam AG. Gout, diet, and the insulin resistance syndrome. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 13505.
  • 7
    Schumacher HR Jr, Boice JA, Daikh DI, Mukhopadhyay S, Malmstrom K, Ng J, et al. Randomised double blind trial of etoricoxib and indometacin in treatment of acute gouty arthritis. BMJ 2002; 324: 148892.
  • 8
    Rubin BR, Burton R, Navarra S, Antigua J, Londono J, Pryhuber KG, et al. Efficacy and safety profile of treatment with etoricoxib 120 mg once daily compared with indomethacin 50 mg three times daily in acute gout: a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 598606.
  • 9
    McCarthy GM, Barthelemy CR, Veum JA, Wortmann RL. Influence of antihyperuricemic therapy on the clinical and radiographic progression of gout. Arthritis Rheum 1991; 34: 148994.
  • 10
    Lawrence RC, Helmick CG, Arnett FC, Deyo RA, Felson DT, Giannini EH, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and selected musculoskeletal disorders in the United States. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 77899.
  • 11
    Adams PF, Hendershot GE, Marano MA. Current estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 1996. Vital Health Stat 10 1999. p. 200.
  • 12
    Arromdee E, Michet CJ, Crowson CS, O'Fallon WM, Gabriel SE. Epidemiology of gout: is the incidence rising? J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 24036.
  • 13
    Lawrence JS. Heritable disorders of connective tissue. Proc R Soc Med 1960; 53: 5226.
  • 14
    Wyngaarden JB, Frederickson DS. Metabolic basis of inherited disease. 1st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1960. p. 67980.
  • 15
    Kellgren JH. The epidemiology of rheumatic diseases. Ann Rheum Dis 1964; 23: 10922.
  • 16
    O'Sullivan JB. Gout in a New England town: a prevalence study in Sudbury, Massachusetts. Ann Rheum Dis 1972; 31: 1669.
  • 17
    Currie WJ. Prevalence and incidence of the diagnosis of gout in Great Britain. Ann Rheum Dis 1979; 38: 1016.
  • 18
    Harris CM, Lloyd DC, Lewis J. The prevalence and prophylaxis of gout in England. J Clin Epidemiol 1995; 48: 11538.
  • 19
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Vital and health statistics: current estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 1988. Series 10. No. 173. Atlanta: Department of Health and Human Services (US). URL: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_173.pdf.
  • 20
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Vital and health statistics: current estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 1996. Series 10. No. 200. Atlanta: Department of Health and Human Services (US). URL: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_200.pdf.
  • 21
    Zeng Q, Wang Q, Chen R, Xiao Z, Huang S, Xu J. Primary gout in Shantou: a clinical and epidemiological study. Chin Med J (Engl) 2003; 116: 669.
  • 22
    Chen SY, Chen CL, Shen ML, Kamatani N. Trends in the manifestations of gout in Taiwan. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2003; 42: 152933.
  • 23
    O'Duffy JD, Hunder GG, Kelly PJ. Decreasing prevalence of tophaceous gout. Mayo Clin Proc 1975; 50: 2278.
  • 24
    Campion EW, Glynn RJ, DeLabry LO. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia: risks and consequences in the Normative Aging Study. Am J Med 1987; 82: 4216.
  • 25
    Lin KC, Lin HY, Chou P. Community based epidemiological study on hyperuricemia and gout in Kin-Hu, Kinmen. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 104550.
  • 26
    Grodzicki T, Palmer A, Bulpitt CJ. Incidence of diabetes and gout in hypertensive patients during 8 years of follow-up. J Hum Hypertens 1997; 11: 5835.
  • 27
    Greenfield TK, Midanik LT, Rogers JD. A 10-year national trend study of alcohol consumption, 1984-1995: is the period of declining drinking over? Am J Public Health 2000; 90: 4752.
  • 28
    Izzo JL Jr. Hypertension in the metabolic syndrome and diabetes: pathogenesis, clinical studies, and treatment. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2003; 5(6 Suppl 4 ): 310.
  • 29
    Salvetti A, Ghiadoni L. Guidelines for antihypertensive treatment: an update after the ALLHAT study. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15 Suppl 1: S514.
  • 30
    Hajjar I, Kotchen TA. Trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the United States, 1988-2000. JAMA 2003; 290: 199206.
  • 31
    Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, Willett W, Curhan G. Purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake, and the risk of gout in men. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 1093103.
  • 32
    Johnson RJ, Rideout BA. Uric acid and diet—insights into the epidemic of cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 10713.
  • 33
    Troen BR. The biology of aging. Mt Sinai J Med 2003; 70: 322.
  • 34
    Vupputuri S, He J, Muntner P, Bazzano LA, Whelton PK, Batuman V. Blood lead level is associated with elevated blood pressure in blacks. Hypertension 2003; 41: 4638.
  • 35
    Collins R, Winkleby M. African American women and men at high and low risk for hypertension: a signal detection analysis of NHANES III, 1988-1994. Prev Med 2002; 35: 30312.
  • 36
    Hochberg MC, Thomas J, Thomas DJ, Mead L, Levine DM, Klag MJ. Racial differences in the incidence of gout: the role of hypertension. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 62832.
  • 37
    Fang J, Alderman M. Serum uric acid and cardiovascular mortality: The NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971-1992. JAMA 2000; 283: 240410.
  • 38
    Tykarski A. Evaluation of renal handling of uric acid in essential hypertension: hyperuricemia related to decreased urate secretion. Nephron 1991; 59: 3648.
  • 39
    The ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA 2002; 288: 298197.
  • 40
    Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial Collaborative Research Group. Diuretic versus α-blocker as first-step antihypertensive therapy: final results from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). Hypertension 2003; 42: 23946.
  • 41
    Wing LM, Reid CM, Ryan P, Beilin LJ, Brown MA, Jennings GL, et al, for the Second Australian National Blood Pressure Study Group. A comparison of outcomes with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and diuretics for hypertension in the elderly. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 58392.
  • 42
    Ferdinand KC. Recommendations for the management of special populations: racial and ethnic populations. Am J Hypertens 2003; 16(11 Suppl ): 504.
  • 43
    Bedir A, Topbas M, Tanyeri F, Alvur M, Arik N. Leptin might be a regulator of serum uric acid concentrations in humans. Jpn Heart J 2003; 44: 52736.
  • 44
    St-Onge MP, Keller KL, Heymsfield SB. Changes in childhood food consumption patterns: a cause for concern in light of increasing body weights. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78: 106873.
  • 45
    Meigs JB, Wilson PW, Nathan DM, D'Agostino RB Sr, Williams K, Haffner SM. Prevalence and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in the San Antonio Heart and Framingham Offspring Studies. Diabetes 2003; 52: 21607.
  • 46
    Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults. JAMA 2002; 287: 3569.
  • 47
    Howard BV, Criqui MH, Curb JD, Rodabough R, Safford MM, Santoro N, et al. Risk factor clustering in the insulin resistance syndrome and its relationship to cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal white, black, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander women. Metabolism 2003; 52: 36271.
  • 48
    Okosun IS, Liao Y, Rotimi CN, Prewitt TE, Cooper RS. Abdominal adiposity and clustering of multiple metabolic syndrome in white, black and Hispanic Americans. Ann Epidemiol 2000; 10: 26370.
  • 49
    Hoffmann IS, Cubeddu LX. Clustering of silent cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Hispanics. J Hum Hypertens 2002; 16 Suppl 1: S13741.
  • 50
    Ruiz-Palomo F, Toledo T. Primary Na+/H+ exchanger dysfunction: a possible explanation for insulin resistance syndrome. Med Hypotheses 1993; 41: 1869.
  • 51
    Ghigo D, Alessio P, Burzacca S, Costamagna C, Anfossi G, Cavalot F, et al. Na+/H+ antiporter activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes of obese and type 2 diabetic patients is increased only in the presence of arterial hypertension. Eur J Clin Invest 1994; 24: 16672.
  • 52
    Abate N, Chandalia M, Cabo-Chan AV, Moe OW, Sakhaee K. The metabolic syndrome and uric acid nephrolithiasis: novel features of renal manifestation of insulin resistance. Kidney Int 2004; 65: 38692.
  • 53
    Bakker SJ, Gans RO, ter Maaten JC, Teerlink T, Westerhoff HV, Heine RJ. The potential role of adenosine in the pathophysiology of the insulin resistance syndrome. Atherosclerosis 2001; 155: 28390.
  • 54
    Fox IH, John D, DeBruyne S, Dwosh I, Marliss EB. Hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia: metabolic basis for the association. Metabolism 1985; 34: 7416.
  • 55
    Fam AG. Gout in the elderly: clinical presentation and treatment. Drugs Aging 1998; 13: 22943.
  • 56
    Guidry UC, Evans JC, Larson MG, Wilson PW, Murabito JM, Levy D. Temporal trends in event rates after Q-wave myocardial infarction: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1999; 100: 20549.
  • 57
    US Renal Data System. USRDS 1999 annual data report. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US), National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 1999. URL: http://www.usrds.org.
  • 58
    Merion RM, Guidinger MK, Newmann JM, Ellison MD, Port FK, Wolfe RA. Prevalence and outcomes of multiple-listing for cadaveric kidney and liver transplantation. Am J Transplant 2004, 4: 94100.
  • 59
    Ramos E, Aoun S, Harmon WE. Expanding the donor pool: effect on graft outcome. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 25909.
  • 60
    Hariharan S, Johnson CP, Bresnahan BA, Taranto SE, McIntosh MJ, Stablein D. Improved graft survival after renal transplantation in the United States, 1988 to 1996. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 60512.
  • 61
    Clive DM. Renal transplant-associated hyperuricemia and gout. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000; 11: 9749.
  • 62
    Lin HY, Rocher LL, McQuillan MA, Schmaltz S, Palella TD, Fox IH. Cyclosporine-induced hyperuricemia and gout. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 28792.
  • 63
    Ahn KJ, Kim YS, Lee HC, Park K, Huh KB. Cyclosporine-induced hyperuricemia after renal transplant: clinical characteristics and mechanisms. Transplant Proc 1992; 24: 13912.
  • 64
    Zawadzki J, Grenda R, Januszewicz P. Effect of nifedipine on tubular handling of uric acid in transplanted kidney on cyclosporin A treatment. Nephron 1995; 70: 7782.
  • 65
    Chanard J, Toupance O, Lavaud S, Hurault de Ligny B, Bernaud C, Moulin B. Amlodipine reduces cyclosporin-induced hyperuricaemia in hypertensive renal transplant recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003; 18: 214753.
  • 66
    Simkin PA, Gardner GC. Colchicine use in cyclosporine treated transplant recipients: how little is too much? J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 13347.
  • 67
    Ryffel B, Weber E, Mihatsch MJ. Nephrotoxicity of immunosuppressants in rats: comparison of macrolides with cyclosporin. Exp Nephrol 1994; 2: 32433.
  • 68
    Boots JM, van Duijnhoven EM, Christiaans MH, Nieman FH, van Suylen RJ, van Hooff JP. Single-center experience with tacrolimus versus cyclosporine-Neoral in renal transplant recipients. Transpl Int 2001; 14: 37083.
  • 69
    Starzl TE, Fung J, Jordan M, Shapiro R, Tzakis A, McCauley J, et al. Kidney transplantation under FK 506. JAMA 1990; 264: 637.
  • 70
    Pilmore HL, Faire B, Dittmer I. Tacrolimus for the treatment of gout in renal transplantation: two case reports and review of the literature. Transplantation 2001; 72: 17035.
  • 71
    Tanabe K. Calcineurin inhibitors in renal transplantation: what is the best option? Drugs 2003; 63: 153548.
  • 72
    Flechner SM. Minimizing calcineurin inhibitor drugs in renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 2003; 35(3 Suppl ): 118S21S.
  • 73
    Hricik DE. Use of sirolimus to facilitate cyclosporine avoidance or steroid withdrawal in kidney transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 2003; 35(3 Suppl ): 73S8S.
  • 74
    Groth CG, Backman L, Morales JM, Calne R, Kreis H, Lang P, et al, for the Sirolimus European Renal Transplant Study Group. Sirolimus (rapamycin)-based therapy in human renal transplantation: similar efficacy and different toxicity compared with cyclosporine. Transplantation 1999; 67: 103642.
  • 75
    Dessein PH, Shipton EA, Stanwix AE, Joffe BI, Ramokgadi J. Beneficial effects of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction, and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on serum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study. Ann Rheum Dis 2000; 59: 53943.
  • 76
    Peixoto MR, Monego ET, Jardim PC, Carvalho MM, Sousa AL, Oliveira JS, et al. Diet and medication in the treatment of hyperuricemia in hypertensive patients. Arq Bras Cardiol 2001; 76: 46372.
  • 77
    Butler D. Science of dieting: slim pickings. Nature 2004; 428: 2524.
  • 78
    Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, Willett W, Curhan G. Alcohol intake and risk of incident gout in men: a prospective study. Lancet 2004; 363: 127781.
  • 79
    Garrel DR, Verdy M, PetitClerc C, Martin C, Brule D, Hamet P. Milk- and soy-protein ingestion: acute effect on serum uric acid concentration. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53: 6659.
  • 80
    Ghadirian P, Shatenstein B, Verdy M, Hamet P. The influence of dairy products on plasma uric acid in women. Eur J Epidemiol 1995; 11: 27581.
  • 81
    Kuzmits R, Bresnik W, Muller MM. The effect of benzbromarone in gout patients with limited kidney function. Fortschr Med 1979; 97: 205761.
  • 82
    Chaibriant H. Stop marketing of proprietary medical product Desuric (benzbromarone) [press release]. April 22, 2003. URL: http://agmed.sante.gouv.fr.
  • 83
    Sica DA, Schoolwerth AC. Part 1. Uric acid and losartan. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2002; 11: 47582.
  • 84
    Ohnishi K, Kohno M, Yukiiri K, Masugata H, Wada Y, Takagi Y, et al. Influence of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan on diuretic-induced metabolic effects in elderly hypertensive patients: comparison with a calcium channel blocker. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 39: 41722.
  • 85
    Takahashi S, Moriwaki Y, Yamamoto T, Tsutsumi Z, Ka T, Fukuchi M. Effects of combination treatment using anti-hyperuricaemic agents with fenofibrate and/or losartan on uric acid metabolism. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62: 5725.
  • 86
    Elisaf M, Tsimichodimos V, Bairaktari E, Siamopoulos KC. Effect of micronized fenofibrate and losartan combination on uric acid metabolism in hypertensive patients with hyperuricemia. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1999; 34: 603.
  • 87
    Kamper AL, Nielsen AH. Uricosuric effect of losartan in patients with renal transplants. Transplantation 2001; 72: 6714.
  • 88
    Enomoto A, Kimura H, Chairoungdua A, Shigeta Y, Jutabha P, Cha SH, et al. Molecular identification of a renal urate anion exchanger that regulates blood urate levels. Nature 2002; 417: 44752.
  • 89
    Rafey MA, Lipkowitz MS, Leal-Pinto E, Abramson RG. Uric acid transport. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2003; 12: 5116.
  • 90
    Koepsell H, Endou H. The SLC22 drug transporter family. Pflugers Arch 2004; 447: 66676.
  • 91
    Eraly SA, Hamilton BA, Nigam SK. Organic anion and cation transporters occur in pairs of similar and similarly expressed genes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003; 300: 33342.
  • 92
    Habu Y, Yano I, Takeuchi A, Saito H, Okuda M, Fukatsu A, et al. Decreased activity of basolateral organic ion transports in hyperuricemic rat kidney: roles of organic ion transporters, rOAT1, rOAT3 and rOAT2. Biochem Pharmacol 2003; 66: 110714.
  • 93
    Ljubojevic M, Herak-Kramberger CM, Hagos Y, Bahn A, Endou H, Burckhardt G, et al. Rat renal OAT1 and OAT3 exhibit gender differences determined by both androgen stimulation and estrogen inhibition. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2004 Mar 9 [Epub ahead of print].
  • 94
    Kim GH, Na KY, Kim SY, Joo KW, Oh YK, Chae SW, et al. Up-regulation of organic anion transporter 1 protein is induced by chronic furosemide or hydrochlorothiazide infusion in rat kidney. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003; 18: 150511.
  • 95
    Kojima R, Sekine T, Kawachi M, Cha SH, Suzuki Y, Endou H. Immunolocalization of multispecific organic anion transporters, OAT1, OAT2, and OAT3, in rat kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 84857.
  • 96
    Ichida K, Hosoyamada M, Hisatome I, Enomoto A, Hikita M, Endou H, et al. Clinical and molecular analysis of patients with renal hypouricemia in Japan—influence of URAT1 gene on urinary urate excretion. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15: 16473.
  • 97
    Leal-Pinto E, Cohen BE, Lipkowitz MS, Abramson RG. Functional analysis and molecular model of the human urate transporter/channel, hUAT. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2002; 283: F15063.
  • 98
    Leal-Pinto E, Cohen BE, Abramson RG. Functional analysis and molecular modeling of a cloned urate transporter/channel. J Membr Biol 1999; 169: 1327.
  • 99
    Lipkowitz MS, Leal-Pinto E, Cohen BE, Abramson RG. Galectin 9 is the sugar-regulated urate transporter/channel UAT. Glycoconj J 2004; 19: 4918.
  • 100
    Bleyer AJ, Trachtman H, Sandhu J, Gorry MC, Hart TC. Renal manifestations of a mutation in the uromodulin (Tamm Horsfall protein) gene. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 42: E206.
  • 101
    Colussi G, Rombola G, De Ferrari ME, Rolando P, Surian M, Malberti F, et al. Pharmacological evaluation of urate renal handling in humans: pyrazinamide test vs combined pyrazinamide and probenecid administration. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1987; 2: 106.
  • 102
    Ichida K, Hosoyamada M, Kimura H, Takeda M, Utsonomiya Y, Hosoya T, et al. Urate transport via human PAH transporter hOAT1 and its gene structure. Kidney Int 2003; 63: 14355.
  • 103
    Uchino H, Tamai I, Yamashita K, Minemoto Y, Sai Y, Yabuuchi H, et al. p-aminohippuric acid transport at renal apical membrane mediated by human inorganic phosphate transporter NPT1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000; 270: 2549.
  • 104
    Hande KR, Noone RM, Stone WJ. Severe allopurinol toxicity: description and guidelines for prevention in patients with renal insufficiency. Am J Med 1984; 76: 4756.
  • 105
    Vazquez-Mellado J, Morales EM, Pacheco-Tena C, Burgos-Vargas R. Relation between adverse events associated with allopurinol and renal function in patients with gout. Ann Rheum Dis 2001; 60: 9813.
  • 106
    Fam AG, Dunne SM, Iazzetta J, Paton TW. Efficacy and safety of desensitization to allopurinol following cutaneous reactions. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 2318.
  • 107
    Walter-Sack I, de Vries JX, Kutschker C, Ittensohn A, Voss A. Disposition and uric acid lowering effect of oxipurinol: comparison of different oxipurinol formulations and allopurinol in healthy individuals. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1995; 49: 21520.
  • 108
    Kamatani N, Fujimori S, Hada T, Hosoya T, Kato R, Matsuzawa Y, et al. Phase II dose-response clinical trial using febuxostat (TMX-67), a novel-type xanthine oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase inhibitor, for gout and hyperuricemia [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48 Suppl 9: S530.
  • 109
    Noma S, Verho M, Iwane J, Yamada I, Osajima T, Kamezawa M, et al. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and lowering uric acid effect of repeated daily dosing with Y-700, a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48 Suppl 9: S530.
  • 110
    Wu X, Wakamiya M, Vaishnav S, Geske R, Montgomery C Jr, Jones P, et al. Hyperuricemia and urate nephropathy in urate oxidase-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994; 91: 7426.
  • 111
    Patte C, Sakiroglu O, Sommelet D. European experience in the treatment of hyperuricemia. Semin Hematol 2001; 38(4 Suppl 10 ): 912.
  • 112
    Goldman SC. Rasburicase: potential role in managing tumor lysis in patients with hematological malignancies. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2003; 3: 42933.
  • 113
    Yim BT, Sims-McCallum RP, Chong PH. Rasburicase for the treatment and prevention of hyperuricemia. Ann Pharmacother 2003; 37: 104754.
  • 114
    Pui CH. Urate oxidase in the prophylaxis or treatment of hyperuricemia: the United States experience. Semin Hematol 2001; 38(4 Suppl 10 ): 1321.
  • 115
    Chu R, Lin Y, Reddy KC, Pan J, Rao MS, Reddy JK, et al. Transformation of epithelial cells stably transfected with H2O2-generating peroxisomal urate oxidase. Cancer Res 1996; 56: 484652.
  • 116
    Bomalaski JS, Holtsberg FW, Ensor CM, Clark MA. Uricase formulated with polyethylene glycol (uricase-PEG 20): biochemical rationale and preclinical studies. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 19429.
  • 117
    Steele TH. Hyperuricemic nephropathies. Nephron 1999; 81 Suppl 1: 459.
  • 118
    Waring WS, Webb DJ, Maxwell SR. Uric acid as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. QJM 2000; 93: 70713.
  • 119
    Tomita M, Mizuno S, Yamanaka H, Hosoda Y, Sakuma K, Matuoka Y, et al. Does hyperuricemia affect mortality? A prospective cohort study of Japanese male workers. J Epidemiol 2000; 10: 4039.
  • 120
    Wong KY, MacWalter RS, Fraser HW, Crombie I, Ogston SA, Struthers AD. Urate predicts subsequent cardiac death in stroke survivors. Eur Heart J 2002; 23: 78893.
  • 121
    Feig DI, Johnson RJ. Hyperuricemia in childhood primary hypertension. Hypertension 2003; 42: 24752.
  • 122
    Johnson RJ, Kang DH, Feig D, Kivlighn S, Kanellis J, Watanabe S, et al. Is there a pathogenetic role for uric acid in hypertension and cardiovascular and renal disease? Hypertension 2003; 41: 118390.
  • 123
    Kang DH, Nakagawa T, Feng L, Watanabe S, Han L, Mazzali M, et al. A role for uric acid in the progression of renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 288897.
  • 124
    Kanellis J, Watanabe S, Li JH, Kang DH, Li P, Nakagawa T, et al. Uric acid stimulates monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production in vascular smooth muscle cells via mitogen-activated protein kinase and cyclooxygenase-2. Hypertension 2003; 41: 128793.
  • 125
    Watanabe S, Kang DH, Feng L, Nakagawa T, Kanellis J, Lan H, et al. Uric acid, hominoid evolution, and the pathogenesis of salt-sensitivity. Hypertension 2002; 40: 35560.
  • 126
    Waring WS, Adwani SH, Breukels O, Webb DJ, Maxwell SR. Hyperuricaemia does not impair cardiovascular function in healthy adults. Heart 2004; 90: 1559.
  • 127
    Bagnati M, Perugini C, Cau C, Bordone R, Albano E, Bellomo G. When and why a water-soluble antioxidant becomes pro-oxidant during copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation: a study using uric acid. Biochem J 1999; 340: 14352.
  • 128
    Skinner KA, White CR, Patel R, Tan S, Barnes S, Kirk M, et al. Nitrosation of uric acid by peroxynitrite: formation of a vasoactive nitric oxide donor. J Biol Chem 1998; 273: 244917.
  • 129
    Waring WS, Webb DJ, Maxwell SR. Systemic uric acid administration increases serum antioxidant capacity in healthy volunteers. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2001; 38: 36571.
  • 130
    Waring WS, Convery A, Mishra V, Shenkin A, Webb DJ, Maxwell SR. Uric acid reduces exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy adults. Clin Sci (Lond) 2003; 105: 42530.
  • 131
    Teng RJ, Ye YZ, Parks DA, Beckman JS. Urate produced during hypoxia protects heart proteins from peroxynitrite-mediated protein nitration. Free Radic Biol Med 2002; 33: 12439.
  • 132
    Zhang DX, Zou AP, Li PL. Ceramide-induced activation of NADPH oxidase and endothelial dysfunction in small coronary arteries. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2003; 284: H60512.
  • 133
    Spitsin SV, Scott GS, Mikheeva T, Zborek A, Kean RB, Brimer CM, et al. Comparison of uric acid and ascorbic acid in protection against EAE. Free Radic Biol Med 2002; 33: 136371.
  • 134
    Scott GS, Spitsin SV, Kean RB, Mikheeva T, Koprowski H, Hooper DC. Therapeutic intervention in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by administration of uric acid precursors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002; 99: 163038.
  • 135
    Chapman PT, Yarwood H, Harrison AA, Stocker CJ, Jamar F, Gundel RH, et al. Endothelial activation in monosodium urate monohydrate crystal–induced inflammation: in vitro and in vivo studies on the roles of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 95565.
  • 136
    Terkeltaub R, Baird S, Sears P, Santiago R, Boisvert W. The murine homolog of the interleukin-8 receptor CXCR-2 is essential for the occurrence of neutrophilic inflammation in the air-pouch model of acute urate crystal–induced gouty synovitis. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 9009.
  • 137
    Matsukawa A, Yoshimura T, Maeda T, Takahashi T, Ohkawara S, Yoshinaga M. Analysis of the cytokine network among tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-8, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in monosodium urate crystal-induced rabbit arthritis. Lab Invest 1998; 78: 55969.
  • 138
    Shi Y, Evans JE, Rock KL. Molecular identification of a danger signal that alerts the immune system to dying cells. Nature 2003; 425: 51621.
  • 139
    Kim YG, Huang XR, Suga S, Mazzali M, Tang D, Metz C, et al. Involvement of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in experimental uric acid nephropathy. Mol Med 2000; 6: 83748.
  • 140
    Liu R, Aupperle K, Terkeltaub R. Src family protein tyrosine kinase signaling mediates monosodium urate crystal-induced IL-8 expression by monocytic THP-1 cells. J Leukoc Biol 2001; 70: 9618.
  • 141
    Liu R, Liote F, Rose DM, Merz D, Terkeltaub R. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 and Src kinase signaling transduce monosodium urate crystal–induced nitric oxide production and matrix metalloproteinase 3 expression in chondrocytes. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 24758.
  • 142
    Pouliot M, James MJ, McColl SR, Naccache PH, Cleland LG. Monosodium urate microcrystals induce cyclooxygenase-2 in human monocytes. Blood 1998; 91: 176976.
  • 143
    Liu R, O'Connell M, Johnson K, Pritzker K, Mackman N, Terkeltaub R. Extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/extracellular signal–regulated kinase 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and activation of activator protein 1 and nuclear factor κB transcription factors play central roles in interleukin-8 expression stimulated by monosodium urate monohydrate and calcium pyrophosphate crystals in monocytic cells. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 114555.
  • 144
    Nishimura A, Akahoshi T, Takahashi M, Takagishi K, Itoman M, Kondo H, et al. Attenuation of monosodium urate crystal-induced arthritis in rabbits by a neutralizing antibody against interleukin-8. J Leukoc Biol 1997; 62: 4449.
  • 145
    Nacken W, Roth J, Sorg C, Kerkhoff C. S100A9/S100A8: myeloid representatives of the S100 protein family as prominent players in innate immunity. Microsc Res Tech 2003; 60: 56980.
  • 146
    Ryckman C, McColl SR, Vandal K, de Medicis R, Lussier A, Poubelle PE, et al. Role of S100A8 and S100A9 in neutrophil recruitment in response to monosodium urate monohydrate crystals in the air-pouch model of acute gouty arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 231020.
  • 147
    Manitz MP, Horst B, Seeliger S, Strey A, Skryabin BV, Gunzer M, et al. Loss of S100A9 (MRP14) results in reduced interleukin-8-induced CD11b surface expression, a polarized microfilament system, and diminished responsiveness to chemoattractants in vitro. Mol Cell Biol 2003; 23: 103443.
  • 148
    Ryckman C, Vandal K, Rouleau P, Talbot M, Tessier PA. Proinflammatory activities of S100: proteins S100A8, S100A9, and S100A8/A9 induce neutrophil chemotaxis and adhesion. J Immunol 2003; 170: 323342.
  • 149
    Getting SJ, Christian HC, Flower RJ, Perretti M. Activation of melanocortin type 3 receptor as a molecular mechanism for adrenocorticotropic hormone efficacy in gouty arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 276575.
  • 150
    Cronstein BN, Molad Y, Reibman J, Balakhane E, Levin RI, Weissmann G. Colchicine alters the quantitative and qualitative display of selectins on endothelial cells and neutrophils. J Clin Invest 1995; 96: 9941002.
  • 151
    Chapman PT, Jamar F, Harrison AA, Schofield JB, Peters AM, Binns RM, et al. Characterization of E-selectin expression, leucocyte traffic and clinical sequelae in urate crystal-induced inflammation: an insight into gout. Br J Rheumatol 1996; 35: 32334.
  • 152
    Tramontini N, Huber C, Liu-Bryan R, Terkeltaub RA, Kilgore KS. Central role of complement membrane attack complex in monosodium urate crystal–induced neutrophilic rabbit knee synovitis. Arthritis Rheum 2004: 50; 26339.
  • 153
    Huynh ML, Fadok VA, Henson PM. Phosphatidylserine-dependent ingestion of apoptotic cells promotes TGF-β1 secretion and the resolution of inflammation. J Clin Invest 2002; 109: 4150.
  • 154
    Lawrence T, Willoughby DA, Gilroy DW. Anti-inflammatory lipid mediators and insights into the resolution of inflammation. Nat Rev Immunol 2002; 2: 78795.
  • 155
    Landis RC, Yagnik DR, Florey O, Philippidis P, Emons V, Mason JC, et al. Safe disposal of inflammatory monosodium urate monohydrate crystals by differentiated macrophages. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 302633.
  • 156
    Glass CK. Potential roles of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in macrophage biology and atherosclerosis. J Endocrinol 2001; 169: 4614.
  • 157
    Akahoshi T, Namai R, Murakami Y, Watanabe M, Matsui T, Nishimura A, et al. Rapid induction of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ expression in human monocytes by monosodium urate monohydrate crystals. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 2319.
  • 158
    Gilroy DW, Colville-Nash PR, McMaster S, Sawatzky DA, Willoughby DA, Lawrence T. Inducible cyclooxygenase-derived 15-deoxy-Δ12-14PGJ2 brings about acute inflammatory resolution in rat pleurisy by inducing neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis. FASEB J 2003; 17: 226971.
  • 159
    Cuzzocrea S, Pisano B, Dugo L, Ianaro A, Maffia P, Patel NS, et al. Rosiglitazone, a ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, reduces acute inflammation. Eur J Pharmacol 2004; 483: 7993.
  • 160
    Mikuls TR, MacLean CH, Olivieri J, Patino F, Allison JJ, Farrar JT, et al. Quality of care indicators for gout management. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 93743.