SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Wang F, Wang CL, Tan CT, Manivasagar M. Systemic lupus erythematosus in Malaysia: a study of 539 patients and comparison of prevalence and disease expression in different racial and gender groups. Lupus 1997; 6: 24853.
  • 2
    Reveille JD, Moulds JM, Ahn C, Friedman AW, Baethge B, Roseman J, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups. I. The effects of HLA class II, C4, and CR1 alleles, socioeconomic factors, and ethnicity at disease onset. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 116172.
  • 3
    Alarcón GS, McGwin G Jr, Bartolucci AA, Roseman JM, Lisse J, Fessler BJ, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups. IX. Differences in damage accrual. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 2797806.
  • 4
    Alarcón-Segovia D, Drenkard C, Villa AR. Survival in Mexican patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatology 2001; 40: 2289.
  • 5
    Alarcón GS, McGwin G Jr, Bastian HM, Roseman JM, Lisse J, Fessler BJ, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups. VII. Predictors of early mortality in the LUMINA cohort. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 45: 191202.
  • 6
    Thumboo J, Uramoto K, O'Fallon M, Fong K, Boey M, Feng PH, et al. A comparative study of the clinical manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus in Caucasians in Rochester, Minnesota, and Chinese in Singapore, from 1980 to 1992. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 45: 494500.
  • 7
    Reveille JD, Bartolucci A, Alarcón GS. Prognosis in systemic lupus erythematosus: negative impact of increasing age at onset, black race, and thrombocytopenia, as well as causes of death. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33: 3748.
  • 8
    Alarcón GS, Roseman JM, Bartolucci AA, Friedman AW, Moulds JM, Goel N, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups. II. Features predictive of disease activity early in its course. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 117380.
  • 9
    Vilá LM, Mayor AM, Valentín AH, García-Soberal M, Vilá S. Clinical and immunological manifestations in 134 Puerto Rican patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 1999; 8: 27986.
  • 10
    Tan EM, Cohen AS, Fries JF, Masi AT, McShane DJ, Rothfield NF, et al. The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1982; 25: 12717.
  • 11
    Krupp LB, LaRocca NG, Muir-Nash J, Steinberg AD. The Fatigue Severity Scale: application to patients with multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Arch Neurol 1989; 46: 11213.
  • 12
    Liang MH, Socher SA, Larson MG, Schur PH. Reliability and validity of six systems for the clinical assessment of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1989; 32: 110718.
  • 13
    Liang MH, Fortin PR, Isenberg DA, Snaith L. Quantitative clinical assessment of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus: progress report and research agenda. Rheumatol Int 1991; 11: 1336.
  • 14
    Gladman DD, Urowitz MB, Goldsmith CH, Fortin P, Ginzler E, Gordon C, et al. The reliability of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 80913.
  • 15
    Stewart AL, Hays RD, Ware JE Jr. The MOS short-form general health survey: reliability and validity in a patient population. Med Care 1988; 26: 72432.
  • 16
    Cohen S, Mermelstein R, Kamarch T, Hoberman HN. Measuring the functional components of social support. In: Sarason IG, Sarason BR, editors. Social support: theory, research and applications. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff; 1985. p. 7394.
  • 17
    Pilowsky I. Dimensions of illness behavior as measured by the illness behavior questionnaire: a replication study. J Psychosom Res 1993; 37: 5362.
  • 18
    Lorig K, Chastian RL, Ung E, Shoor S, Holman HR. Development and evaluation of a scale to measure perceived self- efficacy in people with arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1989; 32: 3744.
  • 19
    Alarcón GS, Friedman AW, Straaton KV, Lisse J, Moulds JM, Bastian HM, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups. III. A comparison of characteristics early in the natural history of the LUMINA cohort. Lupus 1999; 8: 197209.
  • 20
    Estes D, Christian CL. The natural history of systemic lupus erythematosus by prospective analysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 1971; 50: 8595.
  • 21
    Rowell NR. The natural history of lupus erythematosus. Clin Exp Dermatol 1984; 9: 21731.
  • 22
    Lom-Orta H, Alarcón-Segovia D, Díaz-Jouanen E. Systemic lupus erythematosus: differences between patients who do and who do not fulfill classification criteria at the time of diagnosis. J Rheumatol 1980; 7: 8317.
  • 23
    Panush RS, Greer JM, Morshedain KK. What is lupus? What is not lupus? Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1993; 19: 22334.
  • 24
    Asherson RA, Cervera R, Lahita RG. Latent, incomplete or lupus at all? J Rheumatol 1991; 18: 17835.
  • 25
    Greer JM, Panush RS. Incomplete lupus. Arch Intern Med 1989; 149: 24736.
  • 26
    Vilá LM, Mayor AM, Valentín AH, García-Soberal M, Vilá S. Clinical outcome and predictors of disease evolution in patients with incomplete lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2000; 9: 1105.
  • 27
    Swaak JG, van de Brink H, Smeenk RJT, Manager K, Kalden JR, et al. Incomplete lupus erythematosus: results of a multicentre study under the supervision of the EULAR Standing Committee on International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutic Trials (ESCISIT). Rheumatology 2001; 40: 8994.
  • 28
    Ganczarczyk L, Urowitz MB, Gladman DD. Latent lupus. J Rheumatol 1989; 16: 4758.
  • 29
    Ascer K, Walter JA, Lief PD, Barlaud P, Bank N. Triad glomerulonephritis, antinuclear antibodies, and positive skin immunofluorescence: variant of systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Med 1983; 74: 839.
  • 30
    Friedman AW, Tew MB, Ahn C, McGwin G Jr, Fessler BJ, Bastian HM, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups. XV. Prevalence and correlates of fibromyalgia. Lupus. 2003; 12: 2749.
  • 31
    Calvo-Alén J, Alarcón GS, Burgard SL, Burst N, Bartolucci AA, Williams HJ. Systemic lupus erythematosus: predictors of its occurrence among a cohort of patients with early undifferentiated connective tissue disease: multivariate analyses and identification of risk factors. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 46975.
  • 32
    Lopez-Acuna D, Hochberg MC, Gittelsohn AM. Do persons of Spanish-heritage have an increased mortality from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared to other Caucasians [abstract]? Arthritis Rheum 1982; 25(9 Suppl ): S67.
  • 33
    Hanis C, Hewett-Emmett D, Bertin TK, Schull WJ. Origins of U.S. Hispanics: implications for diabetes. Diabetes Care 1991; 14: 61827.
  • 34
    Vilá LM, Alarcón GS, McGwin G Jr, Friedman AW, Baethge BA, Bastian HM, et al. Variability of initial clinical manifestations and disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus among four ethnic groups [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46 Suppl 9: S264.
  • 35
    Reinertsen JL, Klippel JH, Johnston AH, Steinberg AD, Decker JL, Mann DL. B-lymphocyete alloantigens associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 1978; 299: 50915.
  • 36
    Reveille JD, Anderson KL, Schrohenloher RE, Acton RT, Barger BO. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of HLA-DR, DQ, DP and C4 alleles in Caucasians with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 1991; 18: 148.
  • 37
    Hartung K, Baur MP, Coldewey R, Fricke M, Kalden JR, Lakomek HJ, et al. Major histocompatibility complex haplotypes and complement C4 alleles in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Invest 1992; 90: 134651.
  • 38
    Reveille JD, Moulds JM, Arnett FC. Major histocompatibility class II and C4 alleles in Mexican-Americans with systemic lupus erythematosus. Tissue Antigens 1995; 45: 917.