Arterial thrombotic events, thrombocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia with schistocytes may be encountered in the setting of both thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). We report 2 cases of TTP occurring in patients with definite primary APS. We also describe the results of tests for ADAMTS-13 activity in 20 consecutive patients with primary APS, as well as tests for antiphospholipid antibodies in 26 patients who had TTP, severe ADAMTS-13 deficiency, and ADAMTS-13–inhibiting antibodies. In both of the patients with primary APS and TTP, ADAMTS-13 activity was undetectable, and ADAMTS-13–inhibiting antibodies were present. None of the 26 patients with TTP and severe ADAMTS-13 deficiency was positive for the lupus anticoagulant. One of these patients had a low level of anticardiolipin antibodies (22 IgG phospholipid units). In the 20 patients with primary APS, mean ADAMTS-13 activity was 116% (range 44–250%), and no severe deficiency (<5%) was observed. Our findings suggest that primary APS must be added to the list of autoimmune disorders that can be complicated by TTP.