• 1
    Manzi S, Meilahn EN, Rairie JE, Conte CG, Medsger TA Jr, Jansen-McWilliams L, et al. Age-specific incidence rates of myocardial infarction and angina in women with systemic lupus erythematosus: comparison with the Framingham Study. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 145: 40815.
  • 2
    Svenungsson E, Jensen-Urstad K, Heimburger M, Silveira A, Hamsten A, de Faire U, et al. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus. Circulation 2001; 104: 188793.
  • 3
    Kannel WB, Wilson PW. Risk factors that attenuate the female coronary disease advantage. Arch Intern Med 1995; 155: 5761.
  • 4
    Roman MJ, Shanker BA, Davis A, Lockshin MD, Sammaritano L, Simantov R, et al. Prevalence and correlates of accelerated atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 2399406.
  • 5
    Asanuma Y, Oeser A, Shintani AK, Turner E, Olsen N, Fazio S, et al. Premature coronary-artery atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 240715.
  • 6
    Esdaile JM, Abrahamowicz M, Grodzicky T, Li Y, Panaritis C, du Berger R, et al. Traditional Framingham risk factors fail to fully account for accelerated atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 23317.
  • 7
    Svenungsson E, Fei GZ, Jensen-Urstad K, de Faire U, Hamsten A, Frostegard J. TNF-α: a link between hypertriglyceridaemia and inflammation in SLE patients with cardiovascular disease. Lupus 2003; 12: 45461.
  • 8
    Svenungsson E, Gunnarsson I, Fei G-Z, Lundberg IE, Klareskog L, Frostegård J. Elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein as markers of disease activity in association with up-regulation of the tumor necrosis factor α/tumor necrosis factor receptor system in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 253340.
  • 9
    Wilson WA, Gharavi AE, Koike T, Lockshin MD, Branch DW, Piette JC, et al. International consensus statement on preliminary classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome: report of an international workshop. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 130911.
  • 10
    Petri M. Epidemiology of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. J Autoimmun 2000; 15: 14551.
  • 11
    Vaarala O, Alfthan G, Jauhiainen M, Leirisalo-Repo M, Aho K, Palosuo T. Crossreaction between antibodies to oxidised low-density lipoprotein and to cardiolipin in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet 1993; 341: 9235.
  • 12
    Horkko S, Olee T, Mo L, Branch DW, Woods VL, Palinski W, et al. Anticardiolipin antibodies from patients with the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome recognize epitopes in both β(2)-glycoprotein 1 and oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Circulation 2001; 103: 9416.
  • 13
    Horkko S, Miller E, Dudl E, Reaven P, Curtiss LK, Zvaifler NJ, et al. Antiphospholipid antibodies are directed against epitopes of oxidized phospholipids: recognition of cardiolipin by monoclonal antibodies to epitopes of oxidized low density lipoprotein. J Clin Invest 1996; 98: 81525.
  • 14
    Iuliano L, Pratico D, Ferro D, Pittoni V, Valesini G, Lawson J, et al. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in patients positive for antiphospholipid antibodies. Blood. 1997; 90: 39315.
  • 15
    Ferro D, Saliola M, Meroni PL, Valesini G, Caroselli C, Pratico D, et al. Enhanced monocyte expression of tissue factor by oxidative stress in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies: effect of antioxidant treatment. J Thromb Haemost 2003; 1: 52331.
  • 16
    Witztum JL. The oxidation hypothesis of atherosclerosis [see comments]. Lancet 1994; 344: 7935.
  • 17
    Wu R, Huang YH, Elinder LS, Frostegard J. Lysophosphatidylcholine is involved in the antigenicity of oxidized LDL. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998; 18: 62630.
  • 18
    Binder CJ, Chang MK, Shaw PX, Miller YI, Hartvigsen K, Dewan A, et al. Innate and acquired immunity in atherogenesis. Nat Med 2002; 8: 121826.
  • 19
    Horkko S, Bird DA, Miller E, Itabe H, Leitinger N, Subbanagounder G, et al. Monoclonal autoantibodies specific for oxidized phospholipids or oxidized phospholipid-protein adducts inhibit macrophage uptake of oxidized low-density lipoproteins. J Clin Invest 1999; 103: 11728.
  • 20
    Quinn MT, Parthasarathy S, Steinberg D. Lysophosphatidylcholine: a chemotactic factor for human monocytes and its potential role in atherogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1988; 85: 28059.
  • 21
    Frostegard J, Nilsson J, Haegerstrand A, Hamsten A, Wigzell H, Gidlund M. Oxidized low density lipoprotein induces differentiation and adhesion of human monocytes and the monocytic cell line U937. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990; 87: 9048.
  • 22
    Frostegard J, Wu R, Giscombe R, Holm G, Lefvert AK, Nilsson J. Induction of T-cell activation by oxidized low density lipoprotein. Arterioscler Thromb 1992; 12: 4617.
  • 23
    Steinberg D. Atherogenesis in perspective: hypercholesterolemia and inflammation as partners in crime. Nat Med 2002; 8: 12117.
  • 24
    Glass CK, Witztum JL. Atherosclerosis: the road ahead. Cell 2001; 104: 50316.
  • 25
    Shaw PX, Horkko S, Chang MK, Curtiss LK, Palinski W, Silverman GJ, et al. Natural antibodies with the T15 idiotype may act in atherosclerosis, apoptotic clearance, and protective immunity. J Clin Invest 2000; 105: 173140.
  • 26
    Tan EM, Cohen AS, Fries JF, Masi AT, McShane DJ, Rothfield NF, et al. The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1982; 25: 12717.
  • 27
    Liang MH, Socher SA, Roberts WN, Esdaile JM. Measurement of systemic lupus erythematosus activity in clinical research. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 81725.
  • 28
    Gladman D, Ginzler E, Goldsmith C, Fortin P, Liang M, Urowitz M, et al. The development and initial validation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 3639.
  • 29
    Palinski W, Yla-Herttuala S, Rosenfeld ME, Butler SW, Socher SA, Parthasarathy S, et al. Antisera and monoclonal antibodies specific for epitopes generated during oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein. Arteriosclerosis 1990; 10: 32535.
  • 30
    Palinski W, Horkko S, Miller E, Steinbrecher UP, Powell HC, Curtiss LK, et al. Cloning of monoclonal autoantibodies to epitopes of oxidized lipoproteins from apolipoprotein E-deficient mice: demonstration of epitopes of oxidized low density lipoprotein in human plasma. J Clin Invest 1996; 98: 80014.
  • 31
    Wu R, de Faire U, Lemne C, Witztum JL, Frostegard J. Autoantibodies to OxLDL are decreased in individuals with borderline hypertension. Hypertension 1999; 33: 539.
  • 32
    Shih DM, Xia YR, Wang XP, Miller E, Castellani LW, Subbanagounder G, et al. Combined serum paraoxonase knockout/apolipoprotein E knockout mice exhibit increased lipoprotein oxidation and atherosclerosis. J Biol Chem 2000; 275: 1752735.
  • 33
    Watson AD, Navab M, Hama SY, Sevanian A, Prescott SM, Stafforini DM, et al. Effect of platelet activating factor-acetylhydrolase on the formation and action of minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein. J Clin Invest 1995; 95: 77482.
  • 34
    Watson AD, Leitinger N, Navab M, Faull KF, Horkko S, Witztum JL, et al. Structural identification by mass spectrometry of oxidized phospholipids in minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein that induce monocyte/endothelial interactions and evidence for their presence in vivo. J Biol Chem 1997; 272: 13597607.
  • 35
    Chang MK, Binder CJ, Torzewski M, Witztum JL. C-reactive protein binds to both oxidized LDL and apoptotic cells through recognition of a common ligand: phosphorylcholine of oxidized phospholipids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002; 99: 130438.
  • 36
    Delgado Alves J, Ames PR, Donohue S, Stanyer L, Nourooz-Zadeh J, Ravirajan C, et al. Antibodies to high-density lipoprotein and β2-glycoprotein I are inversely correlated with paraoxonase activity in systemic lupus erythematosus and primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 268694.
  • 37
    Memon RA, Staprans I, Noor M, Holleran WM, Uchida Y, Moser AH, et al. Infection and inflammation induce LDL oxidation in vivo. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000; 20: 153642.
  • 38
    Wu R, Svenungsson E, Gunnarsson I, Andersson B, Lundberg I, Schafer Elinder L, et al. Antibodies against lysophosphatidylcholine and oxidized LDL in patients with SLE. Lupus 1999; 8: 14250.
  • 39
    Edelstein C, Pfaffinger D, Hinman J, Miller E, Lipkind G, Tsimikas S, et al. Lysine-phosphatidylcholine adducts in kringle V impart unique immunological and potential pro-inflammatory properties to human apolipoprotein(a). J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 528417.
  • 40
    Borba EF, Santos RD, Bonfa E, Vinagre CG, Pileggi FJ, Cossermelli W, et al. Lipoprotein(a) levels in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 2203.
  • 41
    Van Tits L, De Graaf J, Hak-Lemmers H, Bredie S, Demacker P, Holvoet P, et al. Increased levels of low-density lipoprotein oxidation in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. Lab Invest 2003; 83: 1321.
  • 42
    Lee HS, Kim YS. Identification of oxidized low density lipoprotein in human renal biopsies. Kidney Int 1998; 54: 84856.
  • 43
    Ruan XZ, Varghese Z, Powis SH, Moorhead JF. Human mesangial cells express inducible macrophage scavenger receptor: an Ap-1 and ets mediated response. Kidney Int Suppl 1999; 71: S1636.
  • 44
    Steinbrecher UP, Witztum JL, Parthasarathy S, Steinberg D. Decrease in reactive amino groups during oxidation or endothelial cell modification of LDL: correlation with changes in receptor-mediated catabolism. Arteriosclerosis 1987; 7: 13543.
  • 45
    Camejo G, Rosengren B, Olson U, Lopez F, Olofson SO, Westerlund C, et al. Molecular basis of the association of arterial proteoglycans with low density lipoproteins: its effect on the structure of the lipoprotein particle. Eur Heart J 1990; 11: 16473.
  • 46
    Liao F, Andalibi A, deBeer FC, Fogelman AM, Lusis AJ. Genetic control of inflammatory gene induction and NF-κB-like transcription factor activation in response to an atherogenic diet in mice. J Clin Invest 1993; 91: 25729.
  • 47
    George J, Harats D, Gilburd B, Levy Y, Langevitz P, Shoenfeld Y. Atherosclerosis-related markers in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: the role of humoral immunity in enhanced atherogenesis. Lupus 1999; 8: 2206.
  • 48
    Romero F, Amengual O, Atsumi T, Khamashta M, Tinahones F, Hughes G. Arterial disease in lupus and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome: association with anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies but not with antibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Br J Rheumatol 1998; 37: 8838.
  • 49
    Hayem G, Nicaise-Roland P, Palazzo E, de Bandt M, Tubach F, Weber M, et al. Anti-oxidized low-density-lipoprotein (OxLDL) antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus with and without antiphospholipid syndrome. Lupus 2001; 10: 34651.
  • 50
    Pierangeli SS, Barker JH, Stikovac D, Ackerman D, Anderson G, Barquinero J, et al. Effect of human IgG antiphospholipid antibodies on an in vivo thrombosis model in mice. Thromb Haemost 1994; 71: 6704.
  • 51
    Wu R, Nityanand S, Berglund L, Lithell H, Holm G, Lefvert AK. Antibodies against cardiolipin and oxidatively modified LDL in 50-year-old men predict myocardial infarction. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17: 315963.
  • 52
    Vaarala O, Manttari M, Manninen V, Tenkanen L, Puurunen M, Aho K, et al. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies and risk of myocardial infarction in a prospective cohort of middle-aged men. Circulation 1995; 91: 237.
  • 53
    Subbanagounder G, Leitinger N, Shih PT, Faull KF, Berliner JA. Evidence that phospholipid oxidation products and/or platelet-activating factor play an important role in early atherogenesis: in vitro and in vivo inhibition by WEB 2086. Circ Res 1999; 85: 3118.