• 1
    Bradney M, Karlsson MK, Duan Y, Stuckey S, Bass S, Seeman E. Heterogeneity in the growth of the axial and appendicular skeleton in boys: implications for the pathogenesis of bone fragility in men. J Bone Miner Res 2000; 15: 18718.
  • 2
    Orwoll ES. Toward an expanded understanding of the role of the periosteum in skeletal health. J Bone Miner Res 2003; 18: 94954.
  • 3
    Cassidy JT. Osteopenia and osteoporosis in children. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1999; 17: 24550.
  • 4
    McDonagh JE. Osteoporosis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2001; 13: 399404.
  • 5
    Rabinovich CE. Bone mineral status in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2000; 27 Suppl 58: 347.
  • 6
    JRA Criteria Subcommittee of the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee of the American Rheumatism Association. Current proposed revision of the JRA criteria. Arthritis Rheum 1977; 20 Suppl 2: 1959.
  • 7
    Southwood TR, Petty RE, Malleson PN, Delgado EA, Hunt DW, Wood B, et al. Psoriatic arthritis in children. Arthritis Rheum 1989; 32: 100713.
  • 8
    Van der Linden S, Valkenburg HA, Cats A. Evaluation of diagnostic criteria for ankylosing spondylitis: a proposal for modification of the New York criteria. Arthritis Rheum 1984; 27: 3618.
  • 9
    Selvaag AM, Flato B, Lien G, Sorskaar D, Vinje O, Forre O. Measuring health status in early juvenile idiopathic arthritis: determinants and responsiveness of the child health questionnaire. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 160210.
  • 10
    Duke PM, Litt IF, Gross RT. Adolescents' self-assessment of sexual maturation. Pediatrics 1980; 66: 91820.
  • 11
    Tanner JM. Growth at adolescence. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1962. p. 2839.
  • 12
    Anderssen N, Klepp KI, Aas H, Jakobsen R. Stability in physical activity levels in young adolescents. Eur J Public Health 1994; 4: 17580.
  • 13
    Lien G, Flato B, Haugen M, Vinje O, Sorskaar D, Dale K, et al. Frequency of osteopenia in adolescents with early-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a long-term outcome study of one hundred five patients. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 221423.
  • 14
    Andersen LF, Nes M, Lillegaard IT, Sandstad B, Bjorneboe GE, Drevon CA. Evaluation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire used in a group of Norwegian adolescents. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995; 49: 54354.
  • 15
    Haga Rimestad A, Blaker B, Flaten AM, Nordbotten A. Food composition table. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget; 1995.
  • 16
    Greulich WS, Pyle SI. Radiographic atlas of skeletal development of the hand and wrist. Stanford: Stanford University Press; 1959.
  • 17
    Dale K, Paus AC, Laires K. A radiographic classification system in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis applied to the knee. Eur Radiol 1994; 4: 2732.
  • 18
    Szulc P, Seeman E, Delmas PD. Biochemical measurements of bone turnover in children and adolescents. Osteoporos Int 2000; 11: 28194.
  • 19
    Mughal Z. Rickets in childhood. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2002; 6: 18390.
  • 20
    Kroger H, Kotaniemi A, Vainio P, Alhava E. Bone densitometry of the spine and femur in children by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Bone Miner 1992; 17: 7585.
  • 21
    Nelson DA, Koo WW. Interpretation of absorptiometric bone mass measurements in the growing skeleton: issues and limitations. Calcif Tissue Int 1999; 65: 13.
  • 22
    Leonard MB, Propert KJ, Zemel BS, Stallings VA, Feldman HI. Discrepancies in pediatric bone mineral density reference data: potential for misdiagnosis of osteopenia. J Pediatr 1999; 135: 1828.
  • 23
    Altman DG. Relation between several variables. In: AltmanDG, editor. Practical statistics for medical research. London: Chapman & Hall; 1997. p. 32561.
  • 24
    Prentice A, Parsons TJ, Cole TJ. Uncritical use of bone mineral density in absorptiometry may lead to size-related artifacts in the identification of bone mineral determinants. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 60: 83742.
  • 25
    Waaler PE. Anthropometric studies in Norwegian children. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 1983; 308: 141.
  • 26
    Lehtonen-Veromaa M, Mottonen T, Irjala K, Karkkainen M, Lamberg-Allardt C, Hakola P, et al. Vitamin D intake is low and hypovitaminosis D common in healthy 9- to 15-year-old Finnish girls. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999; 53: 74651.
  • 27
    Gare BA, Fasth A. Epidemiology of juvenile chronic arthritis in southwestern Sweden: a 5-year prospective population study. Pediatrics 1992; 90: 9508.
  • 28
    Moe N, Rygg M. Epidemiology of juvenile chronic arthritis in northern Norway: a ten-year retrospective study. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1998; 16: 99101.
  • 29
    Crabtree N, Lunt M, Holt G, Kroger H, Burger H, Grazio S, et al. Hip geometry, bone mineral distribution, and bone strength in European men and women: the EPOS study. Bone 2000; 27: 1519.
  • 30
    Falch JA, Kaastad TS, Bohler G, Espeland J, Sundsvold OJ. Secular increase and geographical differences in hip fracture incidence in Norway. Bone 1993; 14: 6435.
  • 31
    Hillman L, Cassidy JT, Johnson L, Lee D, Allen SH. Vitamin D metabolism and bone mineralization in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Pediatr 1994; 124: 9106.
  • 32
    Pepmueller PH, Cassidy JT, Allen SH, Hillman LS. Bone mineralization and bone mineral metabolism in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 74657.
  • 33
    Reed AM, Haugen M, Pachman LM, Langman CB. Repair of osteopenia in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Pediatr 1993; 122: 6936.
  • 34
    Frost HM, Schonau E. The “muscle-bone unit” in children and adolescents: a 2000 overview. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2000; 13: 57190.
  • 35
    MacKelvie KJ, Khan KM, Petit MA, Janssen PA, McKay HA. A school-based exercise intervention elicits substantial bone health benefits: a 2-year randomized controlled trial in girls. Pediatrics 2003; 112: 44752.
  • 36
    Slemenda CW, Miller JZ, Hui SL, Reister TK, Johnston CC Jr. Role of physical activity in the development of skeletal mass in children. J Bone Miner Res 1991; 6: 122733.
  • 37
    Zanker CL, Gannon L, Cooke CB, Gee KL, Oldroyd B, Truscott JG. Differences in bone density, body composition, physical activity, and diet between child gymnasts and untrained children 7–8 years of age. J Bone Miner Res 2003; 18: 104350.
  • 38
    Kotaniemi A, Savolainen A, Kroger H, Kautiainen H, Isomaki H. Weight-bearing physical activity, calcium intake, systemic glucocorticoids, chronic inflammation, and body constitution as determinants of lumbar and femoral bone mineral in juvenile chronic arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 1999; 28: 1926.
  • 39
    Leonard MB, Feldman HI, Shults J, Zemel BS, Foster BJ, Stallings VA. Long-term, high-dose glucocorticoids and bone mineral content in childhood glucocorticoid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 86875.
  • 40
    Ward LM, Glorieux FH. The spectrum of pediatric osteoporosis. In: GlorieuxFH, editor. Pediatric bone. San Diego: Academic Press; 2003. p. 40131.