• 1
    Hirsch R, Guralnik JM, Leveille SG, Simonsick EM, Ling S, Bandeen-Roche K, et al. Severity of hand osteoarthritis and its association with upper extremity impairment in a population of disabled older women: the Women's Health and Aging Study. Aging (Milano) 1999; 11: 25361.
  • 2
    Bagis S, Sahim G, Yapici Y, Cimen OB, Erdogan C. The effect of hand osteoarthritis on grip and pinch strength and hand function in postmenopausal women. Clin Rheumatol 2003; 22: 4204.
  • 3
    Zhang Y, Niu J, Kelly-Hayes M, Chaisson CE, Aliabadi P, Felson DT. Prevalence of symptomatic hand osteoarthritis and its impact on functional status among the elderly. Am J Epidemiol 2002; 156: 10217.
  • 4
    Jones G, Cooley HM, Bellamy N. A cross-sectional study of the association between Heberden's nodes, radiographic osteoarthritis of the hands, grip strength, disability, and pain. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2001; 9: 60611.
  • 5
    Spacek E, Poiraudeau S, Fayad F, Lefevre-Colau MM, Beaudreuil J, Rannou F, et al. Disability induced by hand osteoarthritis: are patients with more symptoms at digits 2-5 interphalangeal joints different from those with more symptoms at the base of the thumb? Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004; 12: 36673.
  • 6
    Bellamy N, Campbell J, Haraoui B, Buchbinder R, Hobby K, Roth JH, et al. Dimensionality and clinical importance of pain and disability in hand osteoarthrits: development of the Australian/Canadian (AUSCAN) Osteoarthritis Hand Index. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2002; 10: 85562.
  • 7
    Bellamy N, Campbell J, Haraoui B, Gerecz-Simon E, Buchbinder R, Hobby K, et al. Clinimetric properties of the AUSCAN Osteoarthritis Hand Index: an evaluation of reliability, validity and responsiveness. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2002; 10: 8639.
  • 8
    Bellamy N, Campbell J, Haraoui B, Buchbinder R, MacDermid J, Roth J. Development of the Australian/Canadian (AUSCAN) Osteoarthritis (OA) Hand Index. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40 Suppl 9: S110.
  • 9
    Dreiser RL, Maheu E, Guillou GB. Sensitivity to change of the Functional Index for Hand Osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2000; 8 Suppl A: S258.
  • 10
    Dreiser RL, Maheu E, Guillou GB, Caspard H, Grouin JM. Validation of an algofunctional index for osteoarthritis of the hand. Rev Rheum 1995; 6 Suppl 1: 43S53S.
  • 11
    Kraus VB, Li YJ, Martin ER, Jordan JM, Renner JB, Doherty M, et al. Articular hypermobility is a protective factor for hand osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 217883.
  • 12
    Kraus VB, Jordan JM, Crane MM, Renker JB, Doherty M, Wilson AG, et al. The Genetics of Generalized Osteoarthritis (GOGO) Study: frequencies of large joint involvement [abstract]. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004; M30: S12.
  • 13
    Kraus VB, Jordan JM, Crane MM, Renker JB, Doherty M, Wilson AG, et al. The Genetics of Generalized Osteoarthritis (GOGO) Study: patterns of hand osteoarthritis [abstract]. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004; 285: S115.
  • 14
    Kellgren J, Lawrence J. Radiological assessment of osteoarthrosis. Ann Rheum Dis 1957; 16: 494502.
  • 15
    Altman R, Alarcon G, Appelrouth D, Bloch D, Borenstein D, Brandt K, et al. The American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis of the hand. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33: 160110.
  • 16
    Spector TD, Cicuttini F, Baker J, Loughlin J, Hart D. Genetic influences on osteoarthritis in women: a twin study. BMJ 1996; 312: 9403.
  • 17
    Beighton P, Solomon L, Soskolne C. Articular mobility in an African population. Ann Rheum Dis 1973; 32: 4138.
  • 18
    Beighton P, Grahame R, Bird H. Assessment of hypermobility: hypermobility in joints. London: Springer; 1999. p. 922.
  • 19
    Littell RC, Milliken GA, Stroup WW, Wolfinger RD. SAS system for mixed models. Cary (NC): SAS Institute Inc.; 1996.
  • 20
    Mathiowetz V, Kashman N, Voland G, Weber K, Dowe M, Rogers S. Grip and pinch strength: normative data for adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1985; 66: 6974.
  • 21
    Labi ML, Gresham GE, Rathey UK. Hand function in osteoarthritis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1982; 63: 43840.
  • 22
    Altman RD, Hochberg M, Murphy WA, Wofe F, Lequesne M. Atlas of individual radiographic features in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1995; 3 Suppl A: 370.
  • 23
    Kellgren JH, Lawrence JS. Osteo-arthrosis and disk degeneration in an urban population. Ann Rheum Dis 1958; 17: 38897.
  • 24
    Chaisson CE, Zhang Y, McAlindon TE, Hannan MT, Aliabadi P, Naimark A, et al. Radiographic hand osteoarthrits: incidence, patterns, and influence of pre-existing disease in a population based sample. J Rheumatol 1997; 24: 133743.
  • 25
    Bridges AJ, Smith E, Reid J. Joint hypermobility in adults referred to rheumatology clinics. Ann Rheum Dis 1992; 51: 7936.
  • 26
    Rahman N, Thomas JJ, Rice MS. The relationship between hand strength and the forces used to access containers by well elderly persons. Am J Occup Ther 2002; 56: 7885.