• 1
    Wolfe MM, Lichtenstein DR, Singh G. Gastrointestinal toxicity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 188899.
  • 2
    Marra CA, Esdaile JM, Sun H, Anis AH. The cost of COX inhibitors: how selective should we be? J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 27313.
  • 3
    Hawkey CJ. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug gastropathy. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 52135.
  • 4
    March LM, Bachmeier CJ. Economics of osteoarthritis: a global perspective. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol 1997; 11: 81734.
  • 5
    Laine L. Approaches to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in the high-risk patient. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 594606.
  • 6
    Laine L, Bombardier C, Hawkey CJ, Davis B, Shapiro D, Brett C, et al. Stratifying the risk of NSAID-related upper gastrointestinal clinical events: results of a double-blind outcomes study in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Gastroenterology 2002; 123: 100612.
  • 7
    Bombardier C, Laine L, Reicin A, Shapiro D, Burgos-Vargas R, Davis B, et al. Comparison of upper gastrointestinal toxicity of rofecoxib and naproxen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: VIGOR Study Group. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 15208.
  • 8
    Langman MJ, Jensen DM, Watson DJ, Harper SE, Zhao PL, Quan H, et al. Adverse upper gastrointestinal effects of rofecoxib compared with NSAIDs. JAMA 1999; 282: 192933.
  • 9
    Silverstein FE, Faich G, Goldstein JL, Simon LS, Pincus T, Whelton A, et al, and the Celecoxib Long-term Arthritis Safety Study. Gastrointestinal toxicity with celecoxib vs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: the CLASS study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2000; 284: 124755.
  • 10
    Goldstein JL, Eisen GM, Stenson W, et al. Significant reduction in serious upper gastrointestinal (UGI) events with celecoxib, a cox-2 specific inhibitor, compared with conventional NSAIDs: the SUCCESS I trial. Gastroenterology 2001; 118: A554.
  • 11
    Arthritis Pain Guideline Panel. March, 2002. Guidelines for the management of pain in osteroarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile chronic arthritis. American Pain Society publication. URL:
  • 12
    Spiegel BM, Targownik L, Dulai GS, Gralnek IM. The cost-effectiveness of cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors in the management of chronic arthritis. Ann Intern Med 2003; 138: 795806.
  • 13
    El-Serag HB, Graham DY, Richardson P, Inadomi JM. Prevention of complicated ulcer disease among chronic users of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: the use of a nomogram in cost-effectiveness analysis. Arch Intern Med 2002; 162: 210510.
  • 14
    Chan FK, Hung LC, Suen BY, Wu JC, Lee KC, Leung VK, et al. Celecoxib versus diclofenac and omeprazole in reducing the risk of recurrent ulcer bleeding in patients with arthritis. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 210410.
  • 15
    Lai K, Chu K, Hui W, et al. COX-2 inhibitor compared with proton pump inhibitor in the prevention of recurrent ulcer complications in high-risk patients taking NSAIDs. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: A551.
  • 16
    Pellissier JM, Straus WL, Watson DJ, Kong SX, Harper SE. Economic evaluation of rofecoxib versus nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Clin Ther 2001; 23: 106179.
  • 17
    Chancellor JV, Hunsche E, de Cruz E, Sarasin FP. Economic evaluation of celecoxib, a new cyclo-oxygenase 2 specific inhibitor, in Switzerland. Pharmacoeconomics 2001; 19 Suppl 1: 5975.
  • 18
    Zabinski RA, Burke TA, Johnson J, Lavoie F, Fitzsimon C, Tretiak R, et al. An economic model for determining the costs and consequences of using various treatment alternatives for the management of arthritis in Canada. Pharmacoeconomics 2001; 19 Suppl 1: 4958.
  • 19
    Fendrick AM, Bandekar RR, Chernew ME, Scheiman JM. Role of initial NSAID choice and patient risk factors in the prevention of NSAID gastropathy: a decision analysis. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 47: 3643.
  • 20
    Drummond MF, Richardson WS, O'Brien BJ, Levine M, Heyland B. Users' guide to the medical literature. XIII. How to use an article on economic analysis of clinical practice. A. Are the results of the study valid? Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 1997; 277: 15527.
  • 21
    American Gastroenterological Association. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement: evaluation of dyspepsia. Gastroenterology 1998; 114: 57981.
  • 22
    Fink A, Kosecoff J, Chassin M, Brook RH. Consensus methods: characteristics and guidelines for use. Am J Public Health 1984; 74: 97983.
  • 23
    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events: recommendation and rationale. Ann Intern Med 2002; 136: 15760.
  • 24
    Silverstein FE, Graham DY, Senior JR, Davies HW, Struthers BJ, Bittman RM, et al. Misoprostol reduces serious gastrointestinal complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1995; 123: 2419.
  • 25
    Sorensen HT, Mellemkjaer L, Blot WJ, Nielsen GL, Steffensen FH, McLaughlin JK, et al. Risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding associated with use of low-dose aspirin. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 221824.
  • 26
    Weil J, Colin-Jones D, Langman M, Lawson D, Logan R, Murphy M, et al. Prophylactic aspirin and risk of peptic ulcer bleeding. BMJ 1995; 310: 82730.
  • 27
    Serrano P, Lanas A, Arroyo MT, Casanovas JA, Ferreira I. Risk stratification of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in cardiovascular patients on low-dose aspirin: a cohort study. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: A862.
  • 28
    Hawkey CJ, Karrasch JA, Szczepanski L, Walker DG, Barkum A, Swannell AJ, et al. Omeprazole compared with misoprostal for ulcers associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: Omeprazole versus Misoprostal for NSAID-induced Ulcer Management (OMNIUM) Study Group. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 72734.
  • 29
    Ekstrom P, Carling L, Wetterhus S, Wingren PE, Anker-Hansen O, Lundegardh G, et al. Prevention of peptic ulcer and dyspeptic symptoms with omeprazole in patients receiving continuous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy: a Nordic multicentre study. Scand J Gastroenterol 1996; 31: 7538.
  • 30
    Cullen D, Bardhan KD, Eisner M, Kogut DG, Peacock RA, Thomson JM, et al. Primary gastroduodenal prophylaxis with omeprazole for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998; 12: 13540.
  • 31
    Lai KC, Lam SK, Chu KM, Wong BC, Hui WM, Hu WH, et al. Lansoprazole for the prevention of recurrences of ulcer complications from long-term low-dose aspirin use. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 20338.
  • 32
    Ofman JJ, MacLean CH, Straus WL, Morton SC, Berger ML, Roth EA, et al. Meta-analysis of dyspepsia and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 49: 50818.
  • 33
    Graham DY, Agrawal NM, Campbell DR, Haber MM, Collis C, Lukasik NL, et al. Ulcer prevention in long-term users of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: results of a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, active- and placebo-controlled study of misoprostol vs lansoprazole. Arch Intern Med 2002; 162: 16975.
  • 34
    Petitti DB. Meta-analysis, decision analysis, and cost-effectiveness analysis: methods for quantitative synthesis in medicine. New York: Oxford University Press; 2000.
  • 35
    Bensen WG, Fiechtner JJ, McMillen JI, Zhao WW, Yu SS, Woods EM, et al. Treatment of osteoarthritis with celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor: a randomized controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc 1999; 74: 1095105.
  • 36
    Cannon GW, Caldwell JR, Holt P, McLean B, Seidenberg B, Bolognese J, et al, and the Rofecoxib Phase III Protocol 035 Study Group. Rofecoxib, a specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase 2, with clinical efficacy comparable with that of diclofenac sodium: results of a one-year, randomized, clinical trial in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and hip. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 97887.
  • 37
    Day R, Morrison B, Luza A, Castaneda O, Strusberg A, Nahir M, et al. A randomized trial of the efficacy and tolerability of the COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib vs ibuprofen in patients with osteoarthritis: Rofecoxib/Ibuprofen Comparator Study Group. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 17817.
  • 38
    Emery P, Zeidler H, Kvien TK, Guslandi M, Naudin R, Stead H, et al. Celecoxib versus diclofenac in long-term management of rheumatoid arthritis: randomised double-blind comparison. Lancet 1999; 354: 210611.
  • 39
    Geusens PP, Truitt K, Sfikakis P, Zhao PL, DeTora L, Shingo S, et al. A placebo and active comparator-controlled trial of rofecoxib for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 2002; 31: 2308.
  • 40
    Goldstein JL, Correa P, Zhao WW, Burr AM, Hubbard RC, Verburg KM, et al. Reduced incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers with celecoxib, a novel cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, compared to naproxen in patients with arthritis Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 101927.
    Direct Link:
  • 41
    Laine L, Harper S, Simon T, Bath R, Johanson J, Schwartz H, et al, and the Rofecoxib Osteoarthritis Endoscopy Study Group. A randomized trial comparing the effect of rofecoxib, a cyclooxygenase 2-specific inhibitor, with that of ibuprofen on the gastroduodenal mucosa of patients with osteoarthritis. Gastroenterology 1999; 117: 77683.
  • 42
    McKenna F, Borenstein D, Wendt H, Wallemark C, Lefkowith JB, Geis GS. Celecoxib versus diclofenac in the management of osteoarthritis of the knee. Scand J Rheumatol 2001; 30: 118.
  • 43
    Saag K, van der Heijde D, Fisher C, Samara A, DeTora L, Bolognese J, et al, and the Osteoarthritis Studies Group. Rofecoxib, a new cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor, shows sustained efficacy, comparable with other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a 6-week and a 1-year trial in patients with osteoarthritis. Arch Fam Med 2000; 9: 112434.
  • 44
    Simon LS, Weaver AL, Graham DY, Kivitz AJ, Lipsky PE, Hubbard RC, et al. Anti-inflammatory and upper gastrointestinal effects of celecoxib in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1999; 282: 19218.
  • 45
    Mukherjee D, Nissen SE, Topol EJ. Risk of cardiovascular events associated with selective COX-2 inhibitors. JAMA 2001; 286: 9549.
  • 46
    Juni P, Dieppe P, Egger M. Risk of myocardial infarction associated with selective COX-2 inhibitors: questions remain. Arch Intern Med 2002; 162: 263940.
  • 47
    Targum SL. Cardiovascular Safety Review. Food and Drug Administration; 2001. URL:
  • 48
    Food and Drug Administration. OPDRA Postmarketing Safety Review. URL:
  • 49
    Food and Drug Administration. FDA Advisory Committee Briefing Document: NDA 21-042, s007: Vioxx Gastrointestinal Safety. URL:
  • 50
    GoldMR, SiegelJE, RussellLB, WeinsteinMG, editors. Cost-effectiveness in health and medicine. New York: Oxford University Press; 1996.
  • 51
    Muennig P. Designing and conducting cost-effectiveness analyses in medicine and health care. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2002.
  • 52
    Fendrick MA, Garabedian-Ruffalo SM. A clinicians' guide to the selection of NSAID therapy. Pharmacol Ther or Pharmacol Toxicol 2002; 27: 57982.
  • 53
    Maetzel A, Ferraz MB, Bombardier C. The cost-effectiveness of misoprostol in preventing serious gastrointestinal events associated with the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 1625.
  • 54
    Knill-Jones R, Drummond M, Kohli H, Davies L. Economic evaluation of gastric ulcer prophylaxis in patients with arthritis receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Postgrad Med J 1990; 66: 63946.
  • 55
    Al MJ, Michel BC, Rutten FF. The cost effectiveness of diclofenac plus misoprostol compared with diclofenac monotherapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Pharmacoeconomics 1996; 10: 14151.
  • 56
    Groeneveld PW, Lieu TA, Fendrick MA, Hurley LB, Ackerson LM, Levin TR, et al. Quality of life measurement clarifies the cost-effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication in peptic ulcer disease and uninvestigated dyspepsia. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 33847.
  • 57
    Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicare provider analysis and review (MEDPAR) of short-stay hospitals. URL:
  • 58
    Ebell MH, Warbasse L, Brenner C. Evaluation of the dyspeptic patient: a cost-utility study. J Fam Pract 1997; 44: 54555.
  • 59
    Spiegel BM, Vakil NB, Ofman JJ. Dyspepsia management in primary care: a decision analysis of competing strategies. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 127085.
  • 60
    Tsevat J, Goldman L, Soukup JR, Lamas GA, Connors KF, Chapin CC, et al. Stability of time-tradeoff utilities in survivors of myocardial infarction. Med Decis Making 1993; 13: 1615.
  • 61
    Sonnenberg A, Everhart JE. Health impact of peptic ulcer in the United States. Am J Gastroenterol 1997; 92: 61420.
  • 62
    Laine L, Peterson WL. Bleeding peptic ulcer. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 71727.
  • 63
    Lau JY, Sung JJ, Lam YH, Chan AC, Ng EK, Lee DW, et al. Endoscopic retreatment compared with surgery in patients with recurrent bleeding after initial endoscopic control of bleeding ulcers. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 7516.
  • 64
    Reiertsen O, Skjoto J, Jacobsen CD, Rosseland AR. Complications of fiberoptic gastrointestinal endoscopy: five years' experience in a central hospital. Endoscopy 1987; 19: 16.
  • 65
    Quine MA, Bell GD, McCloy RF, Matthews HR. Prospective audit of perforation rates following upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in two regions of England. Br J Surg 1995; 82: 5303.
  • 66
    Arrowsmith JB, Gerstman BB, Fleischer DE, Benjamin SB. Results from the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy/U.S. Food and Drug Administration collaborative study on complication rates and drug use during gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 1991; 37: 4217.
  • 67
    Thijs JC, van Zwet AA, Oey HB. Efficacy and side effects of a triple drug regimen for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Scand J Gastroenterol 1993; 28: 9348.
  • 68
    De Boer WA, Tytgat GN. The best therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: should efficacy or side-effect profile determine our choice? Scand J Gastroenterol 1995; 30: 4017.
  • 69
    Soll AH, and the Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology. Consensus conference: medical treatment of peptic ulcer disease: practice guidelines. JAMA 1996; 275: 1314.
  • 70
    Teare JP, Booth JC, Brown JL, Martin J, Thomas HC. Pseudomembranous colitis following clarithromycin therapy. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1995; 7: 2757.
  • 71
    Chiba N, Rao BV, Rademaker JW, Hunt RH. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of antibiotic therapy in eradicating Helicobacter pylori. Am J Gastroenterol 1992: 87: 171627.
  • 72
    Malfertheiner P. Compliance, adverse events and antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori treatment. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 1993; 196: 347.
  • 73
    Hirschhorn LR, Trnka Y, Onderdonk A, Lee ML, Platt R. Epidemiology of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. J Infect Dis 1994; 169: 12733.