• 1
    Branch DW, Dudley DJ, Mitchell MD, Creighton KA, Abbott TM, Hammond EH, et al. Immunoglobulin G fractions from patients with antiphospholipid antibodies cause fetal death in BALB/c mice: a model for autoimmune fetal loss. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990; 163: 2106.
  • 2
    Pierangeli SS, Liu X, Barker JH, Anderson G, Harris EN. Induction of thrombosis in a mouse model by IgG, IgM and IgA immunoglobulins from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. Thromb Haemost 1995; 74: 13617.
  • 3
    Pierangeli SS, Colden-Stanfield M, Liu X, Barker JH, Anderson GL, Harris EN. Antiphospholipid antibodies from antiphospholipid syndrome patients activate endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Circulation 1999; 163: 19972002.
  • 4
    Holers VM, Girardi G, Mo L, Guthridge JM, Molina H, Vialpando CG, et al. C3 activation is required for anti-phospholipid antibody-induced fetal loss. J Exp Med 2002; 1995: 21120.
  • 5
    Girardi G, Berman J, Reecho P, Spruce L, Thurman J, Young K, et al. Complement C5a receptors and neutrophils mediate fetal injury in the antiphospholipid syndrome. J Clin Invest 2003; 112: 164454.
  • 6
    Wetsel RA. Structure, function and cellular expression of complement anaphylatoxin receptors. Curr Opin Immunol 1995; 7: 4853.
  • 7
    Shin ML, Rus HG, Nicolescu FI. Membrane attack by complement: assembly and biology of terminal complement complexes. Biomembranes 1996; 4: 12349.
  • 8
    Wojta J, Kaun C, Zorn G, Ghannadan M, Hauswirth AW, Sperr WR, et al. C5a stimulates production of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in human mast cells and basophils. Blood 2002; 100: 51723.
  • 9
    Nangaku M, Alpers CE, Pippin J, Shankland SJ, Kurokawa K, Adler S, et al. CD59 protects glomerular endothelial cells from immune-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy in rats. J Am Soc Nephrol 1998; 9: 5907.
  • 10
    Girardi G, Redecha P, Salmon J. Heparin prevents antiphospholipid antibody-induced fetal loss by inhibiting complement activation. Nat Med 2004; 10: 12226.
  • 11
    Circolo A, Garnier G, Fukuda W, Wang X, Hidvegi T, Szalai AJ, et al. Genetic disruption of the murine complement C3 promoter region generates deficient mice with extrahepatic expression of C3 mRNA. Immunopharmacology 1999; 42: 13549.
  • 12
    Peterson GL. A simplification of the protein assay method of Lowry et al, which is more generally applicable. Anal Biochem 1977; 83: 34656.
  • 13
    Frei Y, Lambris JD, Stockinger B. Generation of a monoclonal antibody to mouse C5 application in an ELISA assay for detection of anti-C5 antibodies. Mol Cell Probes 1987; 1: 1419.
  • 14
    Davis WD, Brey RL. Antiphospholipid antibodies and complement activation in patients with cerebral ischemia. Clin Exp Immunol 1992; 10: 45560.
  • 15
    Kondo C, Mizuno M, Nishikawa K, Yuzawa Y, Hotta N, Matsuo S. The role of C5a in the development of thrombotic glomerulonephritis in rats. Clin Exp Immunol 2001; 124: 3239.
  • 16
    Jankowski M, Vreys I, Witterrongel C, Boon D, Vermylen J, Hoylaerts MF, et al. Thrombogenicity of β2glycoprotein I-dependent antiphospholipid antibodies in a photochemically induced thrombosis model in hamster. Blood 2003; 101: 15762.
  • 17
    Wang Y, Rollins SA, Madria JA, Matis LA. Anti-C5 monoclonal antibody therapy prevents collagen-induced arthritis and ameliorates established disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995; 92: 89559.
  • 18
    Hillmen P, Hall C, Marsh JC, Elebute M, Bombara MP, Petro BE, et al. Effect of eculizumab on hemolysis and transfusion requirements in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 5529.
  • 19
    Wang Y, Kristan J, Hao L, Lenkoski CS, Shen Y, Matis LA. A role for complement in antibody-mediated inflammation: C5-deficient DBA/1 mice are resistant to collagen-induced arthritis. J Immunol 2000; 164: 43407.
  • 20
    Wang Y, Hu Q, Madri JA, Rollins SA, Chodera A, Matis LA. Amelioration of lupus-like autoimmune disease in NZB/WF1 mice after treatment with a blocking monoclonal antibody specific for complement component C5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996; 93: 85638.