• 1
    Rider LG, Targoff IN. Single organ systems and autoimmunity: muscle diseases. In: LahitaRG, ChiorazziN, ReevesWH, editors. Textbook of autoimmune diseases. Philadelphia (PA): Lippincott-Raven; 2000. p. 42974.
  • 2
    Rider LG, Feldman BM, Perez MD, Rennebohm RM, Lindsley CB, Zemel LS, et al, Juvenile Dermatomyositis Disease Activity Collaborative Study Group. Development of validated disease activity and damage indices for the juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. I. Physician, parent, and patient global assessment. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 197683.
  • 3
    Feldman BM, Ayling-Campos A, Luy L, Stevens D, Silverman ED, Laxer RM. Measuring disability in juvenile dermatomyositis: validity of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 32631.
  • 4
    Huber AM, Hicks JE, Lachenbruch PA, Perez MD, Zemel LS, Rennebohm RM, et al, Juvenile Dermatomyositis Disease Activity Collaborative Study Group. Validation of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire in the juvenile idiopathic myopathies. J Rheumatol 2001; 28: 110611.
  • 5
    Huber AM, Feldman BM, Rennebohm RM, Hicks JE, Lindsley CB, Perez MD, et al, Juvenile Dermatomyositis Disease Activity Collaborative Study Group. Validation and clinical significance of the Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale for assessment of muscle function in the juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 1595603.
  • 6
    Rider LG. Outcome assessment in the adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2002; 28: 93577.
  • 7
    Pachman LM, Hayford JR, Chung A, Daugherty CA, Pallansch MA, Fink CW, et al. Juvenile dermatomyositis at diagnosis: clinical characteristics of 79 children. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 1198204.
  • 8
    Calore EE, Cavaliere MJ, Perez NM. Muscle pathology in juvenile dermatomyositis. Sao Paulo Med J 1997; 115: 15559.
  • 9
    Peloro TM, Miller OF 3rd, Hahn TF, Newman ED. Juvenile dermatomyositis: a retrospective review of a 30-year experience. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001; 45: 2834.
  • 10
    Guzman J, Petty RE, Malleson PN. Monitoring disease activity in juvenile dermatomyositis: the role of von Willebrand factor and muscle enzymes. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 73943.
  • 11
    Rider LG, Giannini EH, Harris-Love M, Joe G, Isenberg D, Pilkington C, et al, International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group. Defining clinical improvement in adult and juvenile myositis. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 60317.
  • 12
    Kimball AB, Summers RM, Turner M, Dugan EM, Hicks J, Miller FW, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging detection of occult skin and subcutaneous abnormalities in juvenile dermatomyositis: implications for diagnosis and therapy. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 186673.
  • 13
    Collison CH, Sinal SH, Jorizzo JL, Walker FO, Monu JU, Snyder J. Juvenile dermatomyositis and polymyositis: a follow-up study of long-term sequelae. South Med J 1998; 91: 1722.
  • 14
    Hernandez RJ, Sullivan DB, Chenevert TL, Keim DR. MR imaging in children with dermatomyositis: musculoskeletal findings and correlation with clinical and laboratory findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1993; 161: 35966.
  • 15
    Maillard SM, Jones R, Owens C, Pilkington C, Woo P, Wedderburn LR, et al. Quantitative assessment of MRI T2 relaxation time of thigh muscles in juvenile dermatomyositis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43: 6038.
  • 16
    Park JH, Vital TL, Ryder NM, Hernanz-Schulman M, Partain CL, Price RR, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging and P-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy provide unique quantitative data useful in the longitudinal management of patients with dermatomyositis. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 73646.
  • 17
    Park JH, Olsen NJ, King L Jr, Vital T, Buse R, Kari S, et al. Use of magnetic resonance imaging and P-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy to detect and quantify muscle dysfunction in the amyopathic and myopathic variants of dermatomyositis. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 6877.
  • 18
    Niermann KJ, Olsen NJ, Park JH. Magnesium abnormalities of skeletal muscle in dermatomyositis and juvenile dermatomyositis. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 47588.
  • 19
    Chung YL, Wassif WS, Bell JD, Hurley M, Scott DL. Urinary levels of creatine and other metabolites in the assessment of polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2003; 42: 298303.
  • 20
    Nicholson J, Wilson ID. High resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy of biological fluids. Prog NMR Spect 1989; 21: 449501.
  • 21
    Rider LG, Schiffenbauer AS, Zito M, Lim KL, Ahmed A, Zemel LS, et al, Juvenile Dermatomyositis Disease Activity Collaboration Study Group. Neopterin and quinolinic acid are surrogate measures of disease activity in the juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Clin Chem 2002; 48: 16818.
  • 22
    Summers RM, Brune AM, Choyke PL, Chow CK, Patronas NJ, Miller FW, et al. Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy: exercise-induced changes in muscle at short inversion time inversion-recovery MR imaging. Radiology 1998; 209: 1916.
  • 23
    Askari A, Vignos PJ Jr, Moskowitz RW. Steroid myopathy in connective tissue disease. Am J Med 1976; 61: 48592.
  • 24
    Logan RG, Bandera JM, Mikkelsen WM, Duff IF. Polymyositis: a clinical study. Ann Intern Med 1966; 65: 9961007.
  • 25
    Walker JB. Creatine: biosynthesis, regulation, and function. Adv Enzymol Relat Areas Mol Biol 1979; 50: 177242.
  • 26
    Bessman SP, Carpenter CL. The creatine-creatine phosphate energy shuttle. Annu Rev Biochem 1985; 54: 83162.
  • 27
    Guimbal C, Kilimann MW. A Na(+)-dependent creatine transporter in rabbit brain, muscle, heart, and kidney: cDNA cloning and functional expression. J Biol Chem 1993; 268: 841821.
  • 28
    Peters JP, van Slyke DD. Quantitative clinical chemistry. London: Bailliere, Tindall and Cox; 1946.
  • 29
    Threlfall CJ, Maxwell AR, Stoner HB. Post-traumatic creatinuria. J Trauma 1984; 24: 51623.
  • 30
    Carter WJ, van der Weijden Benjamin WS, Faas FH. Mechanism of creatinuria in experimental hyperthyroidism. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1981; 97: 47985.
  • 31
    Gartland KP, Beddell CR, Lindon JC, Nicholson JK. Application of pattern recognition methods to the analysis and classification of toxicological data derived from proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine. Mol Pharmacol 1991; 39: 62942.
  • 32
    Timbrell JA. Biomarkers in toxicology. Toxicology 1998; 129: 112.
  • 33
    Park JH, Vansant JP, Kumar NG, Gibbs SJ, Curvin MS, Price RR, et al. Dermatomyositis: correlative MR imaging and P-31 MR spectroscopy for quantitative characterization of inflammatory disease. Radiology 1990; 177: 4739.
  • 34
    Newman ED, Kurland RJ. P-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy in polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Arthritis Rheum 1992; 35: 199203.
  • 35
    Freeman JJ. Regulatory mechanisms of choline production. Life Sci 1996; 58: 19217.
  • 36
    Zeisel SH. Choline: an essential nutrient for humans. Nutrition 2000; 16: 66971.
  • 37
    Clark LC Jr, Thompson HL, Beck EI, Jacobson W. Excretion of creatine and creatinine by children. AMA Am J Dis Child 1951; 81: 77483.