• 1
    Keane J, Gershon S, Wise RP, Mirabile-Levens E, Kasznica J, Schwieterman WD, et al. Tuberculosis associated with infliximab, a tumor necrosis factor α-neutralizing agent. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1098104.
  • 2
    US Food and Drug Administration, Arthritis Drugs Advisory Committee. Update on the TNF-α blocking agents. URL:
  • 3
    CDC. Tuberculosis associated with blocking agents against tumor necrosis factor-α: California 2002–2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2004; 53: 6836.
  • 4
    Gomez-Reino JJ, Carmona L, Valverde VR, Mola EM, Montero MD, on behalf of the BIOBADASER Group. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may predispose to significant increase in tuberculosis risk: a multicenter active-surveillance report. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 21227.
  • 5
    Maini R, St.Clair EW, Breedveld F, Furst D, Kalden J, Weisman M, et al, and the ATTRACT Study Group. Infliximab (chimeric anti-tumour necrosis factor α monoclonal antibody) versus placebo in rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving concomitant methotrexate: a randomised phase III trial. Lancet 1999; 354: 19329.
  • 6
    Infliximab, Remicade [package insert].
  • 7
    St.Clair EW, van der Heijde DM, Smolen JS, Maini RN, Bathon JM, Emery P, et al, for the Active-Controlled Study of Patients Receiving Infliximab for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis of Early Onset Study Group. Combination of infliximab and methotrexate therapy for early rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 343243.
  • 8
    Mohan AK, Cote TR, Block JA, Manadan AM, Siegel JN, Braun MM. Tuberculosis following the use of etanercept, a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 39: 2959.
  • 9
    FDA. Update on the TNF-α blocking agents. FDA; March, 2003. URL:
  • 10
    Klareskog L, van der Heijde D, de Jager JP, Gough A, Kalden J, Malaise M, et al, and the TEMPO Study Investigators. Therapeutic effect of the combination of etanercept and methotrexate compared with each treatment alone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: double-blind randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 363: 67581.
  • 11
    Yocum D, Wolfe F, Rahman MU, Han J, Berman A, Strusberg I, et al. The safety and efficacy of infliximab in RA: 1-year results of a large, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in patients with various comorbidities and background treatments as encountered in clinical practice [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50 Suppl 9: S659.
  • 12
    Breedveld FC, Kavanaugh AF, Cohen SB, Pavelka K, van Vollenhoven R, Perez JL, et al. Early treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with adalimumab (HUMIRA) plus methotrexate vs. adalimumab alone or methotrexate alone: the PREMIER Study. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 40967.
  • 13
    Mendoza MT, Gonzaga AJ, Roa C, Velmonte MA, Jorge M, Montoya JC, et al. Nature of drug resistance and predictors of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among patients seen at the Philippine General Hospital, Manila, Philippines. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1997; 1: 5963.
  • 14
    Paimela L, Johansson-Stephansson EA, Koskimies S, Leirisalo-Repo M. Depressed cutaneous cell-mediated immunity in early rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1990; 8: 4337.
  • 15
    Wallis RS, Broder MS, Wong JY, Hanson ME, Beenhouwer DO. Granulomatous infectious diseases associated with tumor necrosis factor antagonists [published erratum in Clin Infect Dis 2004;39:1254–5]. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38: 12615.
  • 16
    Gardam MA, Keystone EC, Menzies R, Manners S, Skamene E, Long R, et al. Anti-tumour necrosis factor agents and tuberculosis risk: mechanisms of action and clinical management [review]. Lancet Infect Dis 2003; 3: 14855.
  • 17
    Ellerin T, Rubin RH, Weinblatt ME. Infections and anti–tumor necrosis factor α therapy [review]. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 301322.
  • 18
    Long R, Gardam MA. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors and the reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection. CMAJ 2003; 168: 11536.
  • 19
    Arend SM, Breedveld FC, van Dissel JT. TNF-α blockade and tuberculosis: better look before you leap. Neth J Med 2003; 61: 1119.
  • 20
    Hamilton CD. Tuberculosis in the cytokine era: what rheumatologists need to know [editorial]. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 208591.
  • 21
    American Thoracic Society. Targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 161: S22147.
  • 22
    CDC. Update: adverse event data and revised American Thoracic Society/CDC recommendations against the use of rifampin and pyrazinamide for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection: United States, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003; 52: 7359.
  • 23
    Tissot F, Zanetti G, Francioli P, Zellweger JP, Zysset F. Influence of Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination on size of tuberculin skin test reaction: to what size? Clin Infect Dis 2005; 40: 2117.
  • 24
    Anergy skin testing and tuberculosis [corrected] preventive therapy for HIV-infected persons: revised recommendations [published erratum in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1997;46:880]. MMWR Recomm Rep 1997; 46: 119.
  • 25
    Mazurek GH, Villarino ME, and the CDC. Guidelines for using the QuantiFERON-TB test for diagnosing latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. MMWR Recomm Rep 2003; 52: 158.
  • 26
    Pai M, Riley LW, Colford JM Jr. Interferon-γ assays in the immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis 2004; 4: 76176.
  • 27
    Mohan AK, Cote TR, Siegel JN, Braun MM. Infectious complications of biologic treatments of rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2003; 15: 17984.
  • 28
    Wallis RS, Kyambadde P, Johnson JL, Horter L, Kittle R, Pohle M, et al. A study of the safety, immunology, virology, and microbiology of adjunctive etanercept in HIV-1-associated tuberculosis. AIDS 2004; 18: 25764.
  • 29
    Blumberg HM, Burman WJ, Chaisson RE, Daley CL, Etkind SC, Friedman LN, et al. American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Infectious Diseases Society: treatment of tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003; 167: 60362.
  • 30
    Singh N, Paterson DL. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in solid-organ transplant recipients: impact and implications for management. Clin Infect Dis 1998; 27: 126677.