• 1
    Schneider R, Passo MH. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2002; 28: 50330.
  • 2
    Ronchezel MV, Hilario MO, Goldenberg J, Lederman HM, Faltin K Jr, de Azevedo MF, et al. Temporomandibular joint and mandibular growth alterations in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 195661.
  • 3
    Pedersen TK, Jensen JJ, Melsen B, Herlin T. Resorption of the temporomandibular condylar bone according to subtypes of juvenile chronic arthritis. J Rheumatol 2001; 28: 210915.
  • 4
    Karhulahti T, Ylijoki H, Ronning O. Mandibular condyle lesions related to age at onset and subtypes of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in 15-year-old children. Scand J Dent Res 1993; 101: 3328.
  • 5
    Hu YS, Schneiderman ED, Harper RP. The temporomandibular joint in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. II. Relationship between computed tomographic and clinical findings. Pediatr Dent 1996; 18: 3129.
  • 6
    Grosfeld O, Czarnecka B, Drecka-Kuzan K, Szymanska-Jagiello W, Zyszko A. Clinical investigations of the temporomandibular joint in children and adolescents with rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 1973; 2: 1459.
  • 7
    Karhulahti T, Ronning O, Jamsa T. Mandibular condyle lesions, jaw movements, and occlusal status in 15-year-old children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Dent Res 1990; 98: 1726.
  • 8
    Bakke M, Zak M, Jensen BL, Pedersen FK, Kreiborg S. Orofacial pain, jaw function, and temporomandibular disorders in women with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis or persistent juvenile chronic arthritis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2001; 92: 40614.
  • 9
    Twilt M, Mobers SM, Arends LR, ten Cate R, van Suijlekom-Smit L. Temporomandibular involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. J Rheumatol 2004; 31: 141822.
  • 10
    Taylor DB, Babyn P, Blaser S, Smith S, Shore A, Silverman ED, et al. MR evaluation of the temporomandibular joint in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1993; 17: 44954.
  • 11
    Kuseler A, Pedersen TK, Herlin T, Gelineck J. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as a method to diagnose early inflammatory changes in the temporomandibular joint in children with juvenile chronic arthritis. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 140612.
  • 12
    Kuseler A, Pedersen TK, Barlach J, Gelineck J, Sangill R, Melsen B, et al. Contrast-enhanced MRI compared to histological findings in the temporomandibular joint of antigen-induced arthritis in young rabbits. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2004; 22: 4416.
  • 13
    Wenneberg B. Inflammatory involvement of the temporomandibular joint: diagnostic and therapeutic aspects and a study of individuals with ankylosing spondylitis. Swed Dent J Suppl 1983; 20: 154.
  • 14
    Cleary AG, Murphy HD, Davidson JE. Intra-articular corticosteroid injections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88: 1926.
  • 15
    Nitzan DW, Price A. The use of arthrocentesis for the treatment of osteoarthritic temporomandibular joints. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2001; 59: 11549.
  • 16
    Kopp S, Wenneberg B, Haraldson T, Carlsson GE. The short-term effect of intra-articular injections of sodium hyaluronate and corticosteroid on temporomandibular joint pain and dysfunction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1985; 43: 42935.
  • 17
    Ince DO, Ince A, Moore TL. Effect of methotrexate on the temporomandibular joint and facial morphology in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis patients. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2000; 118: 7583.
  • 18
    Martini G, Bacciliero U, Tregnaghi A, Montesco MC, Zulian F. Isolated temporomandibular synovitis as unique presentation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. J Rheumatol 2001; 28: 168992.
  • 19
    Sherry DD, Stein LD, Reed AM, Schanberg LE, Kredich DW. Prevention of leg length discrepancy in young children with pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis by treatment with intraarticular steroids. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 23304.
  • 20
    Horton CP. Treatment of arthritic temporomandibular joints by intra-articular injection of hydrocortisone. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1953; 6: 8269.
  • 21
    Haddad IK. Temporomandibular joint osteoarthrosis: histopathological study of the effects of intra-articular injection of triamcinolone acetonide. Saudi Med J 2000; 21: 6759.
  • 22
    Cahill AM, Baskin KM, Kaye RD, Arabshahi B, Cron RQ, DeWitt EM, et al. CT guided percutaneous steroid injection for treatment of inflammatory arthropathy of the temporomandibular joint in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol. In press.
  • 23
    Vallon D, Akerman S, Nilner M, Petersson A. Long-term follow-up of intra-articular injections into the temporomandibular joint in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Swed Dent J 2002; 26: 14958.
  • 24
    Wenneberg B, Kopp S, Grondahl HG. Long-term effect of intra-articular injections of a glucocorticosteroid into the TMJ: a clinical and radiographic 8-year follow-up. J Craniomandib Disord 1991; 5: 118.
  • 25
    Petty RE, Southwood TR, Baum J, Bhettay E, Glass DN, Manners P, et al. Revision of the proposed classification criteria for juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Durban, 1997. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 19914.
  • 26
    Sheppard IM, Sheppard SM. Maximal incisal opening: a diagnostic index? J Dent Med 1965; 20: 135.
  • 27
    Ingervall B. Range of movement of mandible in children. Scand J Dent Res 1970; 78: 31122.
  • 28
    Kuseler A, Pedersen TK, Gelineck J, Herlin T. A 2 year followup study of enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and clinical examination of the temporomandibular joint in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. J Rheumatol 2005; 32: 1629.