• 1
    Lawrence RC, Helmick CG, Arnett FC, Deyo RA, Felson DT, Giannini EH, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and selected musculoskeletal disorders in the United States. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 77899.
  • 2
    Raymond B, Bergland MM. Psychosocial aspects of fibromyalgia syndrome. J Appl Rehabil Counsel 1994; 25: 426.
  • 3
    Fiske DW, Maddi SR. Functions of varied experience. Homewood (IL): Dorsey; 1961.
  • 4
    Berlyne DE. Motivational problems raised by exploratory and epistemic behavior. In: KochS, editor. Psychology: a study of a science. Vol. 5. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1963.
  • 5
    Suedfeld P. Restricted stimulation: research and clinical application. New York: Wiley; 1980.
  • 6
    Butler RA. Exploratory and related behavior: a new trend in animal research. J Individ Psychol 1958; 14: 11120.
  • 7
    Montgomery KC. The role of the exploratory drive in learning. J Comp Physiol Psychol 1954; 47: 604.
  • 8
    Mishel M. Uncertainty in illness manual. Chapel Hill (NC): University of North Carolina School of Nursing; 1997.
  • 9
    Mishel MH, Sorenson DS. Uncertainty in gynecological cancer: a test of the mediating functions of mastery and coping. Nurs Res 1991; 40: 16771.
  • 10
    Mishel MH, Hostetter T, King B, Graham V. Predictors of psychosocial adjustment in patients newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer. Cancer Nurs 1984; 13: 2919.
  • 11
    Davis MC, Zautra AJ, Reich JW. Vulnerability to stress among women in chronic pain from fibromyalgia and osteoarthritis. Ann Behav Med 2001; 23: 21526.
  • 12
    Reich JW, Johnson L, Zautra AJ, Davis MC. Uncertainty of illness and pain helplessness relationships with mental health and coping processes in fibromyalgia. Submitted for publication.
  • 13
    Zautra AJ, Fasman R, Reich JW, Harakas P, Johnson LM, Olmsted ME, et al. Fibromyalgia: evidence for deficits in positive affect regulation. Psychosom Med 2005; 67: 14755.
  • 14
    Johnson L, Zautra AJ, Davis MC. Positive affect as a source of resilience to pain and stress for women in chronic pain. Health Psychol. In Press.
  • 15
    Schwartz L, Kraft GH. The role of spouse responses to disability and family environment in multiple sclerosis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1999; 78: 52532.
  • 16
    Keers JC, Hagedoorn M, Buunk BP. Depressive feelings and somatic complaints of patients with fibromyalgia: the role of partners' active involvement, overprotectiveness, and protective buffering. Gedrag Gezond 2003; 31: 1929.
  • 17
    Nicassio PM, Radojevic V. Models of family functioning and their contribution to patient outcomes in chronic pain. Motivat Emot 1993; 17: 295316.
  • 18
    Vitaliano PP, Zhang J, Scanlan JM. Is caregiving hazardous to one's physical health? A meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 2003; 129: 94672.
  • 19
    Martire LM, Stephens MA, Druley JA, Wojno WC. Negative reactions to received spousal care: predictors and consequences of miscarried support. Health Psychol 2002; 21: 16776.
  • 20
    Vitaliano PP, Russo J, Young HM, Teri L, Maiuro RD. Predictors of burden in spouse caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer's disease. Psychol Aging 1991; 6: 392402.
  • 21
    Faison KI, Faria SH, Frank D. Caregivers of chronically ill elderly: perceived burden. J Community Health Nurs 1999; 16: 24353.
  • 22
    Romano JM, Turner JA, Friedman LS, Bulcroft RA, Jensen MP, Hops H, et al. Sequential analysis of chronic pain behaviors and spouse responses. J Consult Clin Psychol 1992; 60: 77782.
  • 23
    Wineman NM, O'Brien RA, Nealon NR, Kaskel B. Congruence in uncertainty between individuals with multiple sclerosis and their spouses. J Neurosci Nurs 1993; 25: 35661.
  • 24
    Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Newton T, Cacioppo JT, MacCallum RC, Glaser R, Malarkey WB. Marital conflict and endocrine function: are men really more physiologically affected than women? J Consult Clin Psychol 1996; 64: 32432.
  • 25
    Flor H, Kerns RD, Turk DC. The role of spouse reinforcement, perceived pain, and activity levels of chronic pain patients. J Psychosom Res 1987; 31: 2519.
  • 26
    Kremer EF, Sieber W, Atkinson JH. Spousal perpetuation of chronic pain behavior. Int J Fam Ther 1985; 7: 25969.
  • 27
    Manne SL, Taylor KL, Dougherty J, Kemeny N. Supportive and negative responses in the partner relationship: their association with psychological adjustment among individuals with cancer. J Behav Med 1997; 20: 10125.
  • 28
    Manne SL, Pape SJ, Fang C. Marital satisfaction, functional impairment, and distress among cancer patients. In: A. Stanton (Chair). Intimate relationships after cancer diagnosis. Symposium conducted at the 106th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association; Los Angeles (CA): American Psychological Association; 1998.
  • 29
    Bailey JM, Nielson BI. Uncertainty and appraisal of uncertainty in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Orthop Nurs 1993; 12: 637.
  • 30
    Mishel MH, Braden CJ. Finding meaning: antecedents of uncertainty in illness. Nurs Res 1988; 37: 98127.
  • 31
    Mullins LL, Cote MP, Fuemmeler BF, Jean VM, Beatty WW, Paul RH. Illness intrusiveness, uncertainty, and distress in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Rehab Psychol 2001; 46: 13953.
  • 32
    Mullins LL, Chaney JM, Hartman VL, Albin K, Miles B, Roberson S. Cognitive and affective features of postpolio syndrome: illness uncertainty, attributional style, and adaptation. Int J Rehab Health 1995; 1: 21122.
  • 33
    Christman NJ. Uncertainty and adjustment during radiotherapy. Nurs Res 1990; 39: 1747.
  • 34
    Locke HJ, Wallace KM. Short marital-adjustment and prediction tests: their reliability and validity. Marriage Fam Living 1959; 21: 2515.
  • 35
    Bellamy N, Buchanan WW, Goldsmith CH, Campbell J, Stitt W. Validation study of WOMAC: a health status instrument for measuring clinically important patient relevant outcomes to antirheumatic drug therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. J Rheumatol 1988; 15: 183340.
  • 36
    Poulshock SW, Deimling GT. Families caring for elders in residence: issues in the measurement of burden. J Gerontol 1984; 39: 2309.
  • 37
    Manne SL. Secondary victimization, coping, and adjustment to rheumatoid arthritis [unpublished doctoral thesis]. Tempe: Arizona State University; 1987.
  • 38
    Aiken LS, West SG. Multiple regression: testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park (CA): Sage; 1991.
  • 39
    Hafstrom JL, Schram VR. Chronic illness in couples: selected characteristics, including wives' satisfaction with and perception of marital relationships. Fam Relat 1984; 33: 195203.
  • 40
    Pincus T, Morley S. Cognitive-processing bias in chronic pain: a review and integration. Psychol Bull 2001; 127: 599617.