• 1
    Manzi S, Meilahn EN, Rairie JE, Conte CG, Medsger TA Jr, Jansen-McWilliams L, et al. Age-specific incidence rates of myocardial infarction and angina in women with systemic lupus erythematosus: comparison with the Framingham Study. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 145: 40815.
  • 2
    Esdaile JM, Abrahamowicz M, Grodzicky T, Li Y, Panaritis C, du Berger R, et al. Traditional Framingham risk factors fail to fully account for accelerated atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 23317.
  • 3
    Sangiorgi G, Rumberger JA, Severson A, Edwards WD, Gregoire J, Fitzpatrick LA, et al. Arterial calcification and not lumen stenosis is highly correlated with atherosclerotic plaque burden in humans: a histologic study of 723 coronary artery segments using nondecalcifying methodology. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998; 31: 12633.
  • 4
    Bild D, Folson A, Lowe L, Sidney S, Kiefe C, Westfall A, et al. Prevalence and correlates of coronary calcification in black and white young adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001; 21: 8527.
  • 5
    Greenland P, LaBree L, Azen SP, Doherty TM, Detrano RC. Coronary artery calcium score combined with Framingham score for risk prediction in asymptomatic individuals. JAMA 2004; 291: 2105.
  • 6
    Refai TM, Al-Salem IH, Nkansa-Dwamena D, Al-Salem MH, for the European Concerted Action Project. Hyperhomocysteinaemia and risk of thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Clin Rheumatol 2002; 21: 45761.
  • 7
    Graham IM, Daly LE, Refsum HM, Robinson K, Brattstrom LE, Ueland PM, et al. Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. JAMA 1997; 277: 177581.
  • 8
    Molloy AM, Daly S, Mills JL, Kirke PN, Whitehead AS, Ramsbottom D, et al. Thermolabile variant of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase associated with low red-cell folates: implications for folate intake recommendations. Lancet 1997; 349: 15913.
  • 9
    Hochberg MC. Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus [letter]. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 1725.
  • 10
    Bombardier C, Gladman DD, Urowitz MB, Caron D, Chang CH, and the Committee on Prognosis Studies in SLE. Derivation of the SLEDAI: a disease activity index for lupus patients. Arthritis Rheum 1992; 35: 63041.
  • 11
    Gladman D, Ginzler E, Goldsmith C, Fortin P, Liang M, Urowitz M, et al. The development and initial validation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 3639.
  • 12
    Barbaux S, Kluijtmans LA, Whitehead AS. Accurate and rapid “multiplex heteroduplexing” method for genotyping key enzymes involved in folate/homocysteine metabolism. Clin Chem 2000; 46: 90712.
  • 13
    Levey AS, Coresh J, Balk E, Kausz AT, Levin A, Steffes MW, et al. National Kidney Foundation practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Ann Intern Med 2003; 139: 13747.
  • 14
    Grundy SM, Pasternak R, Greenland P, Smith S, Fuster V. Assessment of cardiovascular risk by use of multiple-risk-factor assessment equations: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology. Circulation 1999; 100: 148192.
  • 15
    Agatston AS, Janowitz WR, Hildner FJ, Zustmer NR, Viamonte M, Detrans R. Quantification of coronary artery calcium using ultrafast computed tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990; 15: 82732.
  • 16
    Hoff JA, Chomka EV, Krainik AJ, Daviglus M, Rich S, Kondos GT. Age and gender distributions of coronary artery calcium detected by electron beam tomography in 35,246 adults. Am J Cardiol 2001; 87: 13359.
  • 17
    Petri M, Roubenoff R, Dallal GE, Nadeau MR, Selhub J, Rosenberg IH. Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for atherothrombotic events in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet 1996; 348: 11204.
  • 18
    Bruce IN, Urowitz MB, Gladman DD, Ibanez D, Steiner G. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in women with systemic lupus erythematosus: the Toronto Risk Factor Study. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 315967.
  • 19
    Asanuma Y, Oeser A, Shintani AK, Turner E, Olsen N, Fazio S, et al. Premature coronary-artery atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 240715.
  • 20
    Roman MJ, Shanker BA, Davis A, Lockshin MD, Sammaritano L, Simantov R, et al. Prevalence and correlates of accelerated atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 2399406.
  • 21
    Meleady R, Ueland PM, Blom H, Whitehead AS, Refsum H, Daly LE, et al. Thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, homocysteine, and cardiovascular disease risk: the European Concerted Action Project. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77: 6370.
  • 22
    Danesh J, Wheeler JG, Hirschfield GM, Eda S, Eiriksdottir G, Rumley A, et al. C-reactive protein and other circulating markers of inflammation in the prediction of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 138797.
  • 23
    Pai JK, Pischon T, Ma J, Manson JE, Hankinson SE, Joshipura K, et al. Inflammatory markers and the risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 2599610.
  • 24
    Lee TC, O'Malley PG, Feuerstein I, Taylor AJ. The prevalence and severity of coronary artery calcification on coronary artery computed tomography in black and white subjects. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 41: 3944.