• 1
    Gordon C, Clarke AE. Quality of life and economic evaluation in SLE clinical trials. Lupus 1999; 8: 64554.
  • 2
    Testa MA, Simonson DC. Assessment of quality-of-life outcomes. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 83540.
  • 3
    Thumboo J, Fong KY, Chan SP, Leong KH, Feng PH, Thio ST, et al. A prospective study of factors affecting quality of life in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 141420.
  • 4
    Dobkin PL, da Costa D, Dritsa M, Fortin PR, Senecal JL, Goulet JR, et al. Quality of life in systemic lupus erythematosus patients during more and less active disease states: differential contributors to mental and physical health. Arthritis Care Res 1999; 12: 40110.
  • 5
    Rinaldi S, Doria A, Vescovi F, Corbanese S, Iaccarino L, Della Libera S, et al. Quality of life in systemic lupus erythematosus. Reumatismo 2001; 53: 10815. In Italian.
  • 6
    Rinaldi S, Doria A, Salaffi F, Ermani M, Iaccarino L, Ghirardello A, et al. Health-related quality of life in Italian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. I. Relationship between physical and mental dimension and impact of age. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43: 15749.
  • 7
    Lazarus R, Folkman S. Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer; 1984.
  • 8
    Pakenham KI. Adjustment to multiple sclerosis: application of a stress and coping model. Health Psychol 1999; 18: 38392.
  • 9
    Lazarus RS. Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1966.
  • 10
    Kathol RG, Noyes R Jr, Williams J, Mutgi A, Carroll B, Perry P. Diagnosing depression in patients with medical illness. Psychosomatics 1990; 31: 43440.
  • 11
    Doria A, Rinaldi S, Ermani M, Salaffi F, Iaccarino L, Ghirardello A, et al. Health-related quality of life in Italian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. II. Role of clinical, immunological and psychological determinants. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43: 15806.
  • 12
    Shortall E, Isenberg D, Newman SP. Factors associated with mood and mood disorders in SLE. Lupus 1995; 4: 2729.
  • 13
    Herrmann M, Scholmerich J, Straub RH. Stress and rheumatic diseases. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2000; 26: 73763.
  • 14
    Akkasilpa S, Minor M, Goldman D, Magder LS, Petri M. Association of coping responses with fibromyalgia tender points in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 6714.
  • 15
    Crane M, Pucino F, Sebring N, Irby D, Perry M, Mattiko M, et al. The interdisciplinary team's approach to lupus nephritis. Lupus 1998; 7: 6605.
  • 16
    Lazarus RS. Coping theory and research: past, present, and future. Psychosom Med 1993; 55: 23447.
  • 17
    Holahan CJ, Moos RH. Risk, resistance, and psychological distress: a longitudinal analysis with adults and children. J Abnorm Psychol 1987; 96: 313.
  • 18
    Savelkoul M, de Witte LP, Candel MJ, van der Tempel H, van den Borne B. Effects of a coping intervention on patients with rheumatic diseases: results of a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 45: 6976.
  • 19
    Savelkoul M, Post MW, de Witte LP, van den Borne HB. Social support, coping and subjective well-being in patients with rheumatic diseases. Patient Educ Couns 2000; 39: 20519.
  • 20
    Savelkoul M, de Witte LP. Mutual support groups in rheumatic diseases: effects and participants' perceptions. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 6058.
  • 21
    LeFort SM, Gray-Donald K, Rowat KM, Jeans ME. Randomized controlled trial of a community-based psychoeducation program for the self-management of chronic pain. Pain 1998; 74: 297306.
  • 22
    Tan EM, Cohen AS, Fries JF, Masi AT, McShane DJ, Rothfield NF, et al. The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1982; 25: 12717.
  • 23
    American College of Rheumatology Ad Hoc Committee on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Guidelines. Guidelines for referral and management of systemic lupus erythematosus in adults. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 178596.
  • 24
    Vitali C, Bencivelli W, Isenberg DA, Smolen JS, Snaith ML, Sciuto M, et al, and The European Consensus Study Group for Disease Activity in SLE. Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus: report of the Consensus Study Group of the European Workshop for Rheumatology Research. II. Identification of the variables indicative of disease activity and their use in the development of an activity score. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1992; 10: 5417.
  • 25
    Gladman D, Ginzler E, Goldsmith C, Fortin P, Liang M, Urowitz M, et al. The development and initial validation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 3639.
  • 26
    Carver CS, Scheier MF, Weintraub JK. Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. J Pers Soc Psychol 1989; 56: 26783.
  • 27
    Sica C, Novara C, Dorz S, Sanavio E. Coping orientation to problems experienced (COPE): traduzione e adattamento italiano. Boll Psicol Appl 1997; 223: 2534.
  • 28
    Sica C, Novara C, Dorz S, Sanavio E. Coping strategies: evidence for cross-cultural differences? A preliminary study with the Italian version of Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE). Pers Individ Dif 1997; 23: 10259.
  • 29
    Apolone G, Mosconi P. The Italian SF-36 Health Survey: translation, validation and norming. J Clin Epidemiol 1998; 51: 102536.
  • 30
    Apolone G, Mosconi P, Ware J. Questionario sullo stato di salute SF-36: manuale d'uso e guida all'interpretazione dei risultati. Milano: Guerini & Associati Editore; 1997.
  • 31
    Ware JE, Kosinski M, Keller SD. SF-36 physical and mental health summary scales: a user's manual. Boston: The Health Institute, New England Medical Centre; 1994.
  • 32
    Ware JE Jr, Kosinski M, Bayliss MS, McHorney CA, Rogers WH, Raczec A. Comparison of methods for the scoring and statistical analysis of SF-36 health profile and summary measures: summary of results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Med Care 1995; 33 Suppl: AS26479.
  • 33
    Cervera R, Khamashta MA, Font J, Sebastiani GD, Gil A, Lavilla P, et al, and the European Working Party on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus during a 10-year period: a comparison of early and late manifestations in a cohort of 1,000 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 2003; 82: 299308.
  • 34
    Gladman DD, Urowitz MB, Ong A, Gough J, MacKinnon A. Lack of correlation among the 3 outcomes describing SLE: disease activity, damage and quality of life. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1996; 14: 3058.
  • 35
    Novara C, Casari S, Compostella S, Dorz S, Sanavio E, Sica C. Coping and cognitive processing style in HIV-positive subjects. Psychother Psychosom 2000; 69: 31621.
  • 36
    Gremigni P, Bettinardi O, Ricci-Bitti PE. Dimensioni personali e stili di coping in pazienti cardooperati. Psicoter Cogn Comp 2000; 6: 21931.
  • 37
    Vines SW, Gupta S, Whiteside T, Dostal-Johnson D, Hummler-Davis A. The relationship between chronic pain, immune function, depression, and health behaviors. Biol Res Nurs 2003; 5: 1829.
  • 38
    Chacon JG, Gonzalez NE, Veliz A, Losada BR, Paul H, Santiago LG, et al. Effect of knee osteoarthritis on the perception of quality of life in Venezuelan patients. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 37782.
  • 39
    Karlson EW, Liang MH, Eaton H, Huang J, Fitzgerald L, Rogers MP, et al. A randomized clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention to improve outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 183241.
  • 40
    Greco CM, Rudy TE, Manzi S. Effects of a stress-reduction program on psychological function, pain, and physical function of systemic lupus erythematosus patients: a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 62534.