• 1
    WHO Scientific Group on the Burden of Musculoskeletal Conditions at the Start of the New Millennium. The burden of musculoskeletal conditions at the start of the new millennium. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 2003; 919: i218.
  • 2
    Yelin E, Callahan LF, and the National Arthritis Data Work Group. The economic cost and social and psychological impact of musculoskeletal conditions. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 135162.
  • 3
    Ward MM, Javitz HS, Yelin EH. The direct cost of rheumatoid arthritis. Value Health 2000; 3: 24352.
  • 4
    Bae SC, Corzillius M, Kuntz KM, Liang MH. Cost-effectiveness of low dose corticosteroids versus non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and COX-2 specific inhibitors in the long-term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2003; 42: 4653.
  • 5
    Brennan A, Bansback N, Reynolds A, Conway P. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of etanercept in adults with rheumatoid arthritis in the UK. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43: 6272.
  • 6
    Bansback NJ, Brennan A, Ghatnekar O. Cost effectiveness of adalimumab in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: 9951002.
  • 7
    Choi HK, Seeger JD, Kuntz KM. A cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment options for patients with methotrexate-resistant rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 231627.
  • 8
    Choi HK, Seeger JD, Kuntz KM. A cost effectiveness analysis of treatment options for methotrexate-naive rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 115665.
  • 9
    Hartman M, van Ede A, Severens JL, Laan RF, van de Putte L, van der Wilt GJ. Economic evaluation of folate supplementation during methotrexate treatment in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2004; 31: 9028.
  • 10
    Jobanputra P, Barton P, Bryan S, Burls A. The effectiveness of infliximab and etanercept for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess 2002; 6: 1110.
  • 11
    Kobelt G, Jonsson L, Young A, Eberhardt K. The cost-effectiveness of infliximab (Remicade) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden and the United Kingdom based on the ATTRACT study. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2003; 42: 32635.
  • 12
    Kobelt G, Eberhardt K, Geborek P. TNF inhibitors in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in clinical practice: costs and outcomes in a follow up study of patients with RA treated with etanercept or infliximab in southern Sweden. Ann Rheum Dis 2004; 63: 410.
  • 13
    Kobelt G, Lindgren P, Singh A, Klareskog L. Cost effectiveness of etanercept (Enbrel) in combination with methotrexate in the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis based on the TEMPO trial. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: 11749.
  • 14
    Lee KK, You JH, Ho JT, Suen BY, Yung MY, Lau WH, et al. Economic analysis of celecoxib versus diclofenac plus omeprazole for the treatment of arthritis in patients at risk of ulcer disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 18: 21722.
  • 15
    Maetzel A, Krahn M, Naglie G. The cost effectiveness of rofecoxib and celecoxib in patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 49: 28392.
  • 16
    Marra CA, Esdaile JM, Anis AH. Practical pharmacogenetics: the cost effectiveness of screening for thiopurine s-methyltransferase polymorphisms in patients with rheumatological conditions treated with azathioprine. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 250712.
  • 17
    Merkesdal S, Ruof J, Mittendorf T, Zeidler H. Cost-effectiveness of TNF-α-blocking agents in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2004; 5: 18816.
  • 18
    Moore A, Phillips C, Hunsche E, Pellissier J, Crespi S. Economic evaluation of etoricoxib versus non-selective NSAIDs in the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients in the UK. Pharmacoeconomics 2004; 22: 64360.
  • 19
    Oh KT, Anis AH, Bae SC. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of thiopurine methyltransferase polymorphism screening by polymerase chain reaction for treatment with azathioprine in Korea. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43: 15663.
  • 20
    Pellissier JM, Watson DJ, Kong SX, Straus WL. Cost-effectiveness of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in chronic arthritis. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140: 7612.
  • 21
    Van den Hout WB, Tijhuis GJ, Hazes JM, Breedveld FC, Vliet Vlieland TP. Cost effectiveness and cost utility analysis of multidisciplinary care in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised comparison of clinical nurse specialist care, inpatient team care, and day patient team care. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62: 30815.
  • 22
    Van den Hout WB, de Jong Z, Munneke M, Hazes JM, Breedveld FC, Vliet Vlieland TP. Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses of a long-term, high-intensity exercise program compared with conventional physical therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 53: 3947.
  • 23
    Welsing PM, Severens JL, Hartman M, van Riel PL, Laan RF. Modeling the 5-year cost effectiveness of treatment strategies including tumor necrosis factor-blocking agents and leflunomide for treating rheumatoid arthritis in the Netherlands. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 96473.
  • 24
    Wong JB, Singh G, Kavanaugh A. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of 54 weeks of infliximab for rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Med 2002; 113: 4008.
  • 25
    Yun HR, Bae SC. Cost-effectiveness analysis of NSAIDs, NSAIDs with concomitant therapy to prevent gastrointestinal toxicity, and COX-2 specific inhibitors in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int 2005; 25: 914.
  • 26
    Drummond M, O'Brien B, Stoddart GL, Torrance GW. Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2001.
  • 27
    GoldMR, SiegelJE, RussellLB, WeinsteinMC, editors. Cost-effectiveness in health and medicine. New York: Oxford University Press; 1996.
  • 28
    Bansback NJ, Regier DA, Ara R, Brennan A, Shojania K, Esdaile JM, et al. An overview of economic evaluations for drugs used in rheumatoid arthritis: focus on tumour necrosis factor-α antagonists. Drugs 2005; 65: 47396.
  • 29
    Dolan P. The measurement of health-related quality of life for use in resource allocation decisions in health care. In: CulyerAJ, NewhouseJP, editors. Handbook of health economics. London (UK): Elsevier Science; 2000.
  • 30
    Neumann PJ, Goldie SJ, Weinstein MC. Preference-based measures in economic evaluation in health care. Annu Rev Public Health 2000; 21: 587611.
  • 31
    Briggs AH, O'Brien BJ. The death of cost-minimization analysis? Health Econ 2001; 10: 17984.
  • 32
    Maetzel A, Tugwell P, Boers M, Guillemin F, Coyle D, Drummond M, et al, and the OMERACT 6 Economics Research Group. Economic evaluation of programs or interventions in the management of rheumatoid arthritis: defining a consensus-based reference case. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 8916.
  • 33
    Guidelines for economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals: Canada. 2nd ed. Ottawa: The Canadian Coordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment; 1997.
  • 34
    Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Boers M, Bombardier C, Furst D, Goldsmith C, et al. American College of Rheumatology preliminary definition of improvement in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 72735.
  • 35
    Weinstein MC, Stason WB. Foundations of cost-effectiveness analysis for health and medical practices. N Engl J Med 1977; 296: 71621.
  • 36
    Kopec JA, Willison KD. A comparative review of four preference-weighted measures of health-related quality of life. J Clin Epidemiol 2003; 56: 31725.
  • 37
    Briggs AH, O'Brien BJ, Blackhouse G. Thinking outside the box: recent advances in the analysis and presentation of uncertainty in cost-effectiveness studies. Annu Rev Public Health 2002; 23: 377401.
  • 38
    Hoch JS, Briggs AH, Willan AR. Something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue: a framework for the marriage of health econometrics and cost-effectiveness analysis. Health Econ 2002; 11: 41530.
  • 39
    Weinstein MC, Fineberg HV, Elstein AS, Frazier HS, Neuhauser D, Neutra RR, et al. Clinical decision analysis. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1980.
  • 40
    Efron B, Tibshirani R. An introduction to the bootstrap. New York: Chapman & Hall; 1993.
  • 41
    Fieller EC. Some problems in interval estimation. J R Stat Soc Ser B 1954; 16: 17583.
  • 42
    Briggs AH. Handling uncertainty in cost-effectiveness models. Pharmacoeconomics 2000; 17: 479500.
  • 43
    Coast J. Is economic evaluation in touch with society's health values? BMJ 2004; 329: 12336.
  • 44
    Fenwick E, Claxton K, Sculpher M. Representing uncertainty: the role of cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Health Econ 2001; 10: 77987.
  • 45
    Maetzel A. Cost-effectiveness analysis: out of touch with clinical reality? Arthritis Rheum 2005; 53: 34.
  • 46
    Wolfe F, Michaud K, Pincus T. Do rheumatology cost-effectiveness analyses make sense? Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43: 46.
  • 47
    Detsky AS, Naglie IG. A clinician's guide to cost-effectiveness analysis. Ann Intern Med 1990; 113: 14754.
  • 48
    Varian H. Microeconomic analysis. 3rd ed. W. W. Norton & Company; 1992.
  • 49
    Sackett DL, Rosenberg WM, Gray JA, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't. BMJ 1996; 312: 712.
  • 50
    Patterson K. What doctors don't know (almost everything). N Y Times Mag [serial online]. 2002; May 5. URL:
  • 51
    Charlton BG. Restoring the balance: evidence-based medicine put in its place. J Eval Clin Pract 1997; 3: 8798.
  • 52
    Sleigh JW. Logical limits of randomized controlled trials. J Eval Clin Pract 1997; 3: 1458.
  • 53
    Ginsburg ME, Kravitz RL, Sandberg WA. A survey of physician attitudes and practices concerning cost-effectiveness in patient care. West J Med 2000; 173: 3904.
  • 54
    Timmermans S, Mauck A. The promises and pitfalls of evidence-based medicine. Health Aff (Millwood) 2005; 24: 1828.
  • 55
    Moayyedi P, Duffet S, Soo S, Axon AT. The appropriateness of measuring the benefit of dyspepsia management in terms of quality adjusted life years [abstract]. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: A239.
  • 56
    Marra CA, Esdaile JM, Guh D, Kopec JA, Brazier JE, Koehler BE, et al. A comparison of four indirect methods of assessing utility values in rheumatoid arthritis. Med Care 2004; 42: 112531.
  • 57
    Marra CA, Woolcott JC, Kopec JA, Shojania K, Offer R, Brazier JE, et al. A comparison of generic, indirect utility measures (the HUI2, HUI3, SF-6D, and the EQ-5D) and disease-specific instruments (the RAQoL and the HAQ) in rheumatoid arthritis. Soc Sci Med 2005; 60: 157182.
  • 58
    Moayyedi P, Mason J. Cost-utility and cost-benefit analyses: how did we get here and where are we going? Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 16: 52734.
  • 59
    Ubel PA, Loewenstein G, Scanlon D, Kamlet M. Individual utilities are inconsistent with rationing choices: a partial explanation of why Oregon's cost-effectiveness list failed. Med Decis Making 1996; 16: 10816.