SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement [review] [published errata appear in Circulation 2005;112:e297 and Circulation 2005;112:e298]. Circulation 2005; 112: 273552.
  • 2
    American Heart Association. Metabolic syndrome: new guidance for prevention and treatment. URL: http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=3033454.
  • 3
    Trevisan M, Liu J, Bahsas FB, Menotti A, and the Risk Factor and Life Expectancy Research Group. Syndrome X and mortality: a population-based study. Am J Epidemiol 1998; 148: 95866.
  • 4
    Ford ES. Risks for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes associated with the metabolic syndrome: a summary of the evidence [review]. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 176978.
  • 5
    Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA 2002; 287: 3569.
  • 6
    Emmerson B. Hyperlipidaemia in hyperuricaemia and gout. Ann Rheum Dis 1998; 57: 50910.
  • 7
    Fam AG. Gout, diet, and the insulin resistance syndrome. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 13505.
  • 8
    Choi HK, Mount DB, Reginato AM, the American College of Physicians, and the American Physiological Society. Pathogenesis of gout. Ann Intern Med 2005; 143: 499516.
  • 9
    Lee J, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Landsberg L, Weiss ST, and the Normative Aging Study. Uric acid and coronary heart disease risk: evidence for a role of uric acid in the obesity-insulin resistance syndrome. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 142: 28894.
  • 10
    Rathmann W, Funkhouser E, Dyer AR, Roseman JM, and the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Relations of hyperuricemia with the various components of the insulin resistance syndrome in young black and white adults: the CARDIA study. Ann Epidemiol 1998; 8: 25061.
  • 11
    Facchini F, Chen YD, Hollenbeck CB, Reaven GM. Relationship between resistance to insulin-mediated glucose uptake, urinary uric acid clearance, and plasma uric acid concentration. JAMA 1991; 266: 300811.
  • 12
    Vazquez-Mellado J, Garcia CG, Vazquez SG, Medrano G, Ornelas M, Alcocer L, et al. Metabolic syndrome and ischemic heart disease in gout. J Clin Rheumatol 2004; 10: 1059.
  • 13
    Rho YH, Choi SJ, Lee YH, Ji JD, Choi KM, Baik SH, et al. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with gout: a multicenter study. J Korean Med Sci 2005; 20: 102933.
  • 14
    Lee WY, Park JS, Noh SY, Rhee EJ, Kim SW, Zimmet PZ. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among 40,698 Korean metropolitan subjects. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2004; 65: 1439.
  • 15
    National Institutes of Health. Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). NIH Publication 01-3670. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health; 2001.
  • 16
    Grundy SM, Brewer HB Jr, Cleeman JI, Smith SC Jr, Lenfant C, the American Heart Association, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Definition of metabolic syndrome: report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association conference on scientific issues related to definition [review]. Circulation 2004; 109: 4338.
  • 17
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III 1988-94) reference manuals and reports [CD-ROM]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Health Statistics; 1996.
  • 18
    Ninomiya JK, L'Italien G, Criqui MH, Whyte JL, Gamst A, Chen RS. Association of the metabolic syndrome with history of myocardial infarction and stroke in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Circulation 2004; 109: 426.
  • 19
    Ter Maaten JC, Voorburg A, Heine RJ, ter Wee PM, Donker AJ, Gans RO. Renal handling of urate and sodium during acute physiological hyperinsulinaemia in healthy subjects. Clin Sci (Lond) 1997; 92: 518.
  • 20
    Muscelli E, Natali A, Bianchi S, Bigazzi R, Galvan AQ, Sironi AM, et al. Effect of insulin on renal sodium and uric acid handling in essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1996; 9: 74652.
  • 21
    Dessein PH, Shipton EA, Stanwix AE, Joffe BI, Ramokgadi J. Beneficial effects of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction, and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on serum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study. Ann Rheum Dis 2000; 59: 53943.
  • 22
    Enomoto A, Kimura H, Chairoungdua A, Shigeta Y, Jutabha P, Cha SH, et al. Molecular identification of a renal urate anion exchanger that regulates blood urate levels. Nature 2002; 417: 44752.
  • 23
    Bedir A, Topbas M, Tanyeri F, Alvur M, Arik N. Leptin might be a regulator of serum uric acid concentrations in humans. Jpn Heart J 2003; 44: 52736.
  • 24
    Fruehwald-Schultes B, Peters A, Kern W, Beyer J, Pfutzner A. Serum leptin is associated with serum uric acid concentrations in humans. Metabolism 1999; 48: 67780.
  • 25
    Bakker SJ, Gans RO, ter Maaten JC, Teerlink T, Westerhoff HV, Heine RJ. The potential role of adenosine in the pathophysiology of the insulin resistance syndrome. Atherosclerosis 2001; 155: 28390.
  • 26
    Balakrishnan VS, Coles GA, Williams JD. Effects of intravenous adenosine on renal function in healthy human subjects. Am J Physiol 1996; 271: F37481.
  • 27
    Balakrishnan VS, Coles GA, Williams JD. A potential role for endogenous adenosine in control of human glomerular and tubular function. Am J Physiol 1993; 265: F50410.
  • 28
    Fransen R, Koomans HA. Adenosine and renal sodium handling: direct natriuresis and renal nerve-mediated antinatriuresis. J Am Soc Nephrol 1995; 6: 14917.
  • 29
    Eriksson KF, Lindgarde F. Prevention of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus by diet and physical exercise: the 6-year Malmo feasibility study. Diabetologia 1991; 34: 8918.
  • 30
    Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, Wang JX, Yang WY, An ZX, et al. Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance: the Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 1997; 20: 53744.
  • 31
    Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hamalainen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 134350.
  • 32
    Fam AG. Gout in the elderly: clinical presentation and treatment [review]. Drugs Aging 1998; 13: 22943.
  • 33
    Parillo M, Rivellese AA, Ciardullo AV, Capaldo B, Giacco A, Genovese S, et al. A high-monounsaturated-fat/low-carbohydrate diet improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Metabolism 1992; 41: 13738.
  • 34
    Takahashi S, Moriwaki Y, Yamamoto T, Tsutsumi Z, Ka T, Fukuchi M. Effects of combination treatment using anti-hyperuricaemic agents with fenofibrate and/or losartan on uric acid metabolism. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62: 5725.
  • 35
    Chanard J, Toupance O, Lavaud S, Hurault de Ligny B, Bernaud C, Moulin B. Amlodipine reduces cyclosporin-induced hyperuricaemia in hypertensive renal transplant recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003; 18: 214753.
  • 36
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2000. JAMA 2002; 288: 17237.
  • 37
    Freedman DS, Khan LK, Serdula MK, Galuska DA, Dietz WH. Trends and correlates of class 3 obesity in the United States from 1990 through 2000. JAMA 2002; 288: 175861.
  • 38
    Ford ES, Giles WH, Mokdad AH. Increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 24449.
  • 39
    Oparil S, Zaman MA, Calhoun DA. Pathogenesis of hypertension. Ann Intern Med 2003; 139: 76176.
  • 40
    Johnson RJ, Kang DH, Feig D, Kivlighn S, Kanellis J, Watanabe S, et al. Is there a pathogenetic role for uric acid in hypertension and cardiovascular and renal disease? Hypertension 2003; 41: 118390.
  • 41
    Abbott RD, Brand FN, Kannel WB, Castelli WP. Gout and coronary heart disease: the Framingham Study. J Clin Epidemiol 1988; 41: 23742.
  • 42
    Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, Willett W, Curhan G. Purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake, and the risk of gout in men. New Eng J Med 2004; 350: 1093103.
  • 43
    Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, Willett W, Curhan G. Alcohol intake and risk of incident gout in men: a prospective study. Lancet 2004; 363: 127781.