• 1
    American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society International Multidisciplinary Consensus Classification of the Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 165: 277304.
  • 2
    Vassallo R, Thomas CF. Advances in the treatment of rheumatic interstitial lung disease. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2004; 3: 18691.
  • 3
    Prasse A, Pechkovsky DV, Toews GB, Jungraithmayer W, Kollert F, Goldmann T, et al. A vicious circle of alveolar macrophages and fibroblasts perpetuates pulmonary fibrosis via CCL18. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 173: 78192.
  • 4
    Luzina IG, Atamas SP, Wise R, Wigley FM, Xiao HQ, White B. Gene expression in bronchoalveolar lavage cells from scleroderma patients. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2002; 26: 549557.
  • 5
    Kodera M, Hasegawa M, Komura K, Yanaba K, Takehara K, Sato S. Serum pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL18 levels in patients with systemic sclerosis: a sensitive indicator of active pulmonary fibrosis. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 288996.
  • 6
    Atamas SP, Luzina IG, Choi J, Tsymbalyuk N, Carbonetti NH, Singh IS, et al. Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine stimulates collagen production in lung fibroblasts. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2003; 29: 7437.
  • 7
    Kodelja V, Muller C, Politz O, Hakij N, Orfanos CE, Goerdt S. Alternative macrophage activation-associated CC-chemokine-1, a novel structural homologue of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 α with a Th2-associated expression pattern. J Immunol 1998; 160: 14118.
  • 8
    Schutyser E, Richmond A, Van Damme J. Involvement of CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) in normal and pathological processes. J Leukoc Biol 2005; 78: 1426.
  • 9
    Hieshima K, Imai T, Baba M, Shoudai K, Ishizuka K, Nakagawa T, et al. A novel human CC chemokine PARC that is most homologous to macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 α/LD78 α and chemotactic for T lymphocytes, but not for monocytes. J Immunol 1997; 159: 11409.
  • 10
    Raghu G, Brown KK, Bradford WZ, Starko K, Noble PW, Schwartz DA, et al, for the Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Study Group. A placebo-controlled trial of interferon gamma-1b in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 12533.
  • 11
    White B, Moore WC, Wigley FM, Xiao HQ, Wise RA. Cyclophosphamide is associated with pulmonary function and survival benefit in patients with scleroderma and alveolitis. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132: 94754.
  • 12
    King TE Jr, Safrin S, Starko KM, Brown KK, Noble PW, Raghu G, et al. Analyses of efficacy end points in a controlled trial of interferon-gamma1b for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Chest 2005; 127: 1717.
  • 13
    Johnson WC, Raghu G. Clinical trials in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a word of caution concerning choice of outcome measures. Eur Respir J 2005; 26: 7558.
  • 14
    Subcommittee for Scleroderma Criteria of the American Rheumatism Association Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee. Preliminary criteria for the classification of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Arthritis Rheum 1980; 23: 58190.
  • 15
    American Thoracic Society. Standardization of spirometry—1987 update: statement of the American Thoracic Society. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987; 136: 128598.
  • 16
    Ziegenhagen MW, Zabel P, Zissel G, Schlaak M, Muller-Quernheim J. Serum level of interleukin 8 is elevated in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and indicates disease activity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 157: 7628.
  • 17
    Prasse A, Georges CG, Biller H, Hamm H, Matthys H, Luttmann W, et al. Th1 cytokine pattern in sarcoidosis is expressed by bronchoalveolar CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Clin Exp Immunol 2000; 122: 2418.
  • 18
    Pardo A, Smith KM, Abrams J, Coffman R, Bustos M, McClanahan TK, et al. CCL18/DC-CK-1/PARC up-regulation in hypersensitivity pneumonitis. J Leukoc Biol 2001; 70: 6106.
  • 19
    King TE Jr, Tooze JA, Schwarz MI, Brown KR, Cherniack RM. Predicting survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: scoring system and survival model. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 164: 117181.
  • 20
    Gay SE, Kazerooni EA, Toews GB, Lynch JP III, Gross BH, Cascade PN, et al. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: predicting response to therapy and survival. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 157: 106372.
  • 21
    Martinez FJ, Safrin S, Weycker D, Starko KM, Bradford WZ, King TE Jr, et al, for the IPF Study Group. The clinical course of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142: 9637.
  • 22
    Gross TJ, Hunninghake GW. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 51725.
  • 23
    Ziegenhagen MW, Schrum S, Zissel G, Zipfel PF, Schlaak M, Muller-Quernheim J. Increased expression of proinflammatory chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage cells of patients with progressing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis. J Investig Med 1998; 46: 22331.
  • 24
    Hunninghake GW, Gadek JE, Lawley TJ, Crystal RG. Mechanisms of neutrophil accumulation in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. J Clin Invest 1981; 68: 25969.
  • 25
    Carre PC, Mortenson RL, King TE Jr, Noble PW, Sable CL, Riches DW. Increased expression of the interleukin-8 gene by alveolar macrophages in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a potential mechanism for the recruitment and activation of neutrophils in lung fibrosis. J Clin Invest 1991; 88: 180210.
  • 26
    Wells AU, Hansell DM, Haslam PL, Rubens MB, Cailes J, Black CM, et al. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellularity: lone cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis compared with the fibrosing alveolitis of systemic sclerosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 157: 147482.
  • 27
    Fulmer JD, Roberts WC, von Gal ER, Crystal RG. Morphologic-physiologic correlates of the severity of fibrosis and degree of cellularity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. J Clin Invest 1979; 63: 66576.
  • 28
    Schraufstatter I, Takamori H, Sikora L, Sriramarao P, DiScipio RG. Eosinophils and monocytes produce pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine, which activates cultured monocytes/macrophages. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2004; 286: L494501.
  • 29
    Adema GJ, Hartgers F, Verstraten R, de Vries E, Marland G, Menon S, et al. A dendritic-cell-derived C-C chemokine that preferentially attracts naive T cells. Nature 1997; 387: 7137.
  • 30
    Gunther C, Bello-Fernandez C, Kopp T, Kund J, Carballido-Perrig N, Hinteregger S, et al. CCL18 is expressed in atopic dermatitis and mediates skin homing of human memory T cells. J Immunol 2005; 174: 17238.
  • 31
    Boot RG, Verhoek M, de Fost M, Hollak CE, Maas M, Bleijlevens B, et al. Marked elevation of the chemokine CCL18/PARC in Gaucher disease: a novel surrogate marker for assessing therapeutic intervention. Blood 2004; 103: 339.
  • 32
    Kirk JM, Bateman ED, Haslam PL, Laurent GJ, Turner-Warwick M. Serum type III procollagen peptide concentration in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and its clinical relevance. Thorax 1984; 39: 72632.
  • 33
    Allanore Y, Borderie D, Lemarechal H, Cherruau B, Ekindjian OG, Kahan A. Correlation of serum collagen I carboxyterminal telopeptide concentrations with cutaneous and pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 6873.