• 1
    WHO Technical Report Series No. 9. The burden of musculoskeletal conditions at the start of the new millennium. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.
  • 2
    McKenna SP, Doward LC, Whalley D, Tennant A, Emery P, Veale DJ. Development of the PsAQoL: a quality of life instrument specific to psoriatic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2004; 63: 1629.
  • 3
    Gladman DD, Helliwell P, Mease PJ, Nash P, Ritchlin C, Taylor W. Assessment of patients with psoriatic arthritis: a review of currently available measures. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 2435.
  • 4
    Depoy E, Gitlin LN. Introduction to research. St. Louis: Mosby; 1998.
  • 5
    Boers M, Brooks P, Strand CV, Tugwell P. The OMERACT filter for Outcome Measures in Rheumatology. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 1989.
  • 6
    Fries JF. New instruments for assessing disability: not quite ready for prime time [editorial]. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 30647.
  • 7
    Stamm TA, Cieza A, Machold KP, Smolen JS, Stucki G. Content comparison of occupation-based instruments in adult rheumatology and musculoskeletal rehabilitation based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 91724.
  • 8
    Carr A, Hewlett S, Hughes R, Mitchell H, Ryan S, Carr M, et al. Rheumatology outcomes: the patient's perspective. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 8803.
  • 9
    Hewlett SA. Patients and clinicians have different perspectives on outcomes in arthritis. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 8779.
  • 10
    Hewlett S, Smith AP, Kirwan JR. Values for function in rheumatoid arthritis: patients, professionals, and public. Ann Rheum Dis 2001; 60: 92833.
  • 11
    Coenen M, Stamm TA, Cieza A, Amann B, Kollerits B, Stucki G. Comparing two qualitative methods: individual interviews with focus groups in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Submitted 2006.
  • 12
    Stamm TA, Cieza A, Coenen M, Machold KP, Nell VP, Smolen JS, et al. Validating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health comprehensive core set for rheumatoid arthritis from the patient perspective: a qualitative study. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 53: 4319.
  • 13
    Kvale S. Interviews: an introduction to qualitative research interviewing. Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage; 1996.
  • 14
    Stamm TA, Wright J, Machold KP, Sadlo G, Smolen JS. Occupational balance of women with rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative study. Musculoskeletal Care 2004; 2: 10112.
  • 15
    Bogdan RC, Biklen SK. Qualitative research for education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon; 1998.
  • 16
    Wengraf T. Qualitative research interviewing: biographic narratives and semi-structured methods. London: Sage Publications; 2001.
  • 17
    Rosenthal G. Erlebte und erzählte Lebensgeschichte. Frankfurt am Main: Campus Fachbuch; 1995.
  • 18
    Schaeffer D, Muller-Mundt G. Qualitative Gesundheits: und Pflegeforschung. Bern: Hans Huber; 2002.
  • 19
    Kirwan J, Heiberg T, Hewlett S, Hughes R, Kvien T, Ahlmen M, et al. Outcomes from the patient perspective workshop at OMERACT 6 [review]. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 86872.
  • 20
    Kvien T, Heiberg T. Patient perspective in outcome assessments: perceptions or something more? [review]. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 8736.
  • 21
    Reddy SM, Bingham CO III. Outcome measures in psoriatic arthritis clinical trials. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2005; 7: 299305.
  • 22
    Fries JF, Spitz P, Kraines RG, Holman HR. Measurement of patient outcome in arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1980; 23: 13745.
  • 23
    Garrett S, Jenkinson T, Kennedy LG, Whitelock H, Gaisford P, Calin A. A new approach to defining disease status in ankylosing spondylitis: the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 228691.
  • 24
    Husted J, Gladman DD, Long JA, Farewell VT. Relationship of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales to changes in articular status and functional performance in patients with psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 19327.
  • 25
    Husted J, Gladman DD, Farewell VT, Long JA. Validation of the revised and expanded version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales for patients with psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 10159.
  • 26
    Ware JE Jr, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care 1992; 30: 47383.
  • 27
    Husted JA, Gladman DD, Farewell VT, Long JA, Cook RJ. Validating the SF-36 health survey questionnaire in patients with psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol 1997; 24: 5117.
  • 28
    Navsarikar A, Gladman DD, Husted JA, Cook RJ. Validity assessment of the disabilities of arm, shoulder, and hand questionnaire (DASH) for patients with psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 21914.
  • 29
    Blackmore MG, Gladman DD, Husted J, Long JA, Farewell VT. Measuring health status in psoriatic arthritis: the Health Assessment Questionnaire and its modification. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 88693.
  • 30
    Finlay AY, Khan GK. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI): a simple practical measure for routine clinical use. Clin Exp Dermatol 1994; 19: 2106.
  • 31
    Mease PJ, Behrens F, Boehncke WH, Feldman SR, FitzGerald O, Gladman DD, et al. Discussion: assessment of psoriatic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64 Suppl 2: ii6973.
  • 32
    WHO. ICF: International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001.
  • 33
    McGonagle D, Conaghan PG, Emery P. Psoriatic arthritis: a unified concept twenty years on. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 10806.
  • 34
    Jones K. The turn to a narrative knowing of persons: one method explored. J Res Nurs 2003; 8: 6071. E-pub ahead of print, 2002. URL:
  • 35
    Karlsson G. Psychological qualitative research from a phenomenological perspective. Stockholm: Almquist & Wiskell International; 1995.
  • 36
    Cieza A, Brockow T, Ewert T, Amman E, Kollerits B, Chatterji S, et al. Linking health-status measurements to the international classification of functioning, disability and health. J Rehabil Med 2002; 34: 20510.
  • 37
    Cieza A, Geyh S, Chatterji S, Kostanjsek N, Ustun B, Stucki G. ICF linking rules: an update based on lessons learned. J Rehabil Med 2005; 37: 2128.
  • 38
    Cieza A, Stucki G. Content comparison of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Qual Life Res 2005; 14: 122537.
  • 39
    Sigl T, Cieza A, van der Heijde D, Stucki G. ICF based comparison of disease specific instruments measuring physical functional ability in ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: 157681.
  • 40
    Stamm T, Geyh S, Cieza A, Machold K, Kollerits B, Kloppenburg M, et al. Measuring functioning in patients with hand osteoarthritis: content comparison of questionnaires based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Rheumatology (Oxford) 2006. E-pub ahead of print. URL:
  • 41
    Cohen J. A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educ Psychol Meas 1960; 20: 3746.
  • 42
    Brennan P, Silman A. Statistical methods for assessing observer variability in clinical measures. BMJ 1992; 304: 14914.
  • 43
    Meenan RF, Mason JH, Anderson JJ, Guccione AA, Kazis LE. AIMS2: the content and properties of a revised and expanded arthritis impact measurement scales health status questionnaire. Arthritis Rheum 1992; 35: 110.
  • 44
    Rosemann T, Korner T, Wensing M, Schneider A, Szecsenyi J. Evaluation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the AIMS2-SF questionnaire (GERMAN-AIMS2-SF). Rheumatology (Oxford) 2005; 44: 11905.
  • 45
    Hudak PL, Amadio PC, Bombardier C, and the Upper Extremity Collaborative Group. Development of an upper extremity outcome measure: the DASH (disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand) [published erratum appears in Am J Ind Med 1996;30:372]. Am J Ind Med 1996; 29: 6028.
  • 46
    Dougados M, Gueguen A, Nakache JP, Nguyen M, Mery C, Amor B. Evaluation of a functional index and an articular index in ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol 1988; 15: 3027.
  • 47
    Daltroy LH, Larson MG, Roberts NW, Liang MH. A modification of the Health Assessment Questionnaire for the spondyloarthropathies [published erratum appears in J Rheumatol 1991;18:305]. J Rheumatol 1990; 17: 94650.
  • 48
    Weigl M, Cieza A, Harder M, Geyh S, Amann E, Kostanjsek N, et al. Linking osteoarthritis-specific health-status measures to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2003; 11: 51923.
  • 49
    Coenen M, Cieza A, Stamm TA, Amann E, Kollerits B, Stucki G. Validation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for rheumatoid arthritis from the patient perspective using focus groups. Arthritis Res Ther 2006. URL:
  • 50
    Xie F, Thumboo J, Fong KY, Lo NN, Yeo SJ, Yang KY, et al. Are they relevant? A critical evaluation of the international classification of functioning, disability, and health core sets for osteoarthritis from the perspective of patients with knee osteoarthritis in Singapore. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 106773.
  • 51
    Xie F, Li SC, Fong KY, Lo NN, Yeo SJ, Yang KY, et al. What health domains and items are important to patients with knee osteoarthritis? A focus group study in a multiethnic urban Asian population. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2006; 14: 22430.
  • 52
    McPherson KM, Brander P, Taylor WJ, McNaughton HK. Living with arthritis: what is important? Disabil Rehabil 2001; 23: 70621.