• 1
    Felson DT, Naimark A, Anderson J, Kazis L, Castilli W, Meenan RF. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly: the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 9148.
  • 2
    Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group. Tamoxifen for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet 1998; 351: 145167.
  • 3
    Higgins JP, Simon GT, Deeks JJ, Altman RD. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 2003; 327: 55760.
  • 4
    Towheed TE, Maxwell L, Anastassiades TP, Shea B, Houpt J, Robinson V, et al. Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; ( 2): CD002946.
  • 5
    Juni P, Witschi A, Bloch R, Egger M. The hazards of scoring the quality of clinical trials for meta-analysis. JAMA 1999; 282: 105460.
  • 6
    Ioannidis JP. Contradicted and initially stronger effects in highly cited clinical research. JAMA 2005; 294: 21828.
  • 7
    Als-Nielsen B, Chen W, Gluud C, Kjaergard LL. Association of funding and conclusions in randomized drug trials: a reflection of treatment effect or adverse events? JAMA 2003; 290: 9218.
  • 8
    Bekelman JE, Li Y, Gross CP. Scope and impact of financial conflicts of interest in biomedical research: a systematic review. JAMA 2003; 289: 45465.
  • 9
    Bhandari M, Busse JW, Jackowski D, Montori VM, Schunemann H, Sprague S, et al. Association between industry funding and statistically significant pro-industry findings in medical and surgical randomized trials. CMAJ 2004; 170: 47780.
  • 10
    Kjaergard LL, Als-Nielsen B. Association between competing interests and authors' conclusions: epidemiological study of randomised clinical trials published in the BMJ. BMJ 2002; 325: 249.
  • 11
    Leopold SS, Warme WJ, Fritz Braunlich E, Shott S. Association between funding source and study outcome in orthopaedic research. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2003; ( 415): 293301.
  • 12
    Lexchin J, Bero LA, Djulbegovic B, Clark O. Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review. BMJ 2003; 326: 116770.
  • 13
    Rochon PA, Gurwitz JH, Simms RW, Fortin PR, Felson DT, Minaker KL, et al. A study of manufacturer-supported trials of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of arthritis. Arch Intern Med 1994; 154: 15763.
  • 14
    Yaphe J, Edman R, Knishkowy B, Herman J. The association between funding by commercial interests and study outcome in randomized controlled drug trials. Fam Pract 2001; 18: 5658.
  • 15
    McAlindon TE, LaValley MP, Gulin JP, Felson DT. Glucosamine and chondroitin for treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic quality assessment and meta-analysis. JAMA 2000; 283: 146975.
  • 16
    Leeb BF, Schweitzer H, Montag K, Smolen JS. A metaanalysis of chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 20511.
  • 17
    Richy F, Bruyere O, Ethgen O, Cucherat M, Henrotin Y, Reginster JY. Structural and symptomatic efficacy of glucosamine and chondroitin in knee osteoarthritis: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163: 151422.
  • 18
    Anderson JW, Nicolosi RJ, Borzelleca JF. Glucosamine effects in humans: a review of effects on glucose metabolism, side effects, safety considerations and efficacy. Food Chem Toxicol 2005; 43: 187201.
  • 19
    McAlindon T. Why are clinical trials of glucosamine no longer uniformly positive? Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2003; 29: 789801.
  • 20
    Owens S, Wagner P, Vangsness CT Jr. Recent advances in glucosamine and chondroitin supplementation. J Knee Surg 2004; 17: 18593.
  • 21
    Zerkak D, Dougados M. The use of glucosamine therapy in osteoarthritis. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2004; 8: 50711.
  • 22
    Glass G. Primary, secondary and meta-analysis of research. Educational Researcher 1976; 5: 38.
  • 23
    Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988.
  • 24
    Chinn S. A simple method for converting an odds ratio to effect size for use in meta-analysis. Stat Med 2000; 19: 3127311.
  • 25
    Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997; 315: 62934.
  • 26
    Thompson SG, Higgins JP. How should meta-regression analyses be undertaken and interpreted? Stat Med 2002; 21: 155973.
  • 27
    Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D, Jenkinson C, Reynolds DJ, Gavaghan DJ, et al. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials 1996; 17: 112.
  • 28
    Rochon PA, Gurwitz JH, Cheung CM, Hayes JA, Chalmers TC. Evaluating the quality of articles published in journal supplements compared with the quality of those published in the parent journal. JAMA 1994; 272: 10813.
  • 29
    Braham R, Dawson B, Goodman C. The effect of glucosamine supplementation on people experiencing regular knee pain. Br J Sports Med 2003; 37: 459.
  • 30
    Chirieac CI, Rezus E, Stratan D, Chiriac R. Effects of glucosamine sulfate and nimesulide on the progression of knee osteoarthritis [abstract]. EULAR Abstract Archive at: 2001.
  • 31
    Crolle G, D'Este E. Glucosamine sulphate for the management of arthrosis: a controlled clinical investigation. Curr Med Res Opin 1980; 7: 1049.
  • 32
    Drovanti A, Bignamini AA, Rovati AL. Therapeutic activity of oral glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthrosis: a placebo-controlled double-blind investigation. Clin Ther 1980; 3: 26072.
  • 33
    Kanth CL, Hussain KH, Sul S. Long term study of chondroprotectives in OA knee [abstract]. OARSI conference abstract available at: 2004.
  • 34
    Lopes Vaz A. Double-blind clinical evaluation of the relative efficacy of ibuprofen and glucosamine sulphate in the management of osteoarthrosis of the knee in out-patients. Curr Med Res Opin 1982; 8: 1459.
  • 35
    Qiu GX, Gao SN, Giacovelli G, Rovati L, Setnikar I. Efficacy and safety of glucosamine sulfate versus ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Arzneimittelforschung 1998; 48: 46974.
  • 36
    Rubin BR, Talent JM, Kongtawelert P, Pertusi RM, Forman MD, Gracy RW. Oral polymeric N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and osteoarthritis. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2001; 101: 33944.
  • 37
    Thie JM, Prasad NG, Major PW. Evaluation of glucosamine sulfate compared to ibuprofen for the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis: a randomized double blind controlled 3 month clinical trial. J Rheumatol 2000; 28: 134755.
  • 38
    Houpt JB, McMillan R, Paget-Dellio D, Russell A, Gahunia HK. Effect of glucosamine hydrochloride (GHCl) in the treatment of pain of osteoarthritis of the knee [abstract]. J Rheumatol 1998; 25 Suppl 52: 8.
  • 39
    McAlindon TE, Formica M, Kabbara K, LaValley M, Lehmer M. Results of a prototype Internet-based randomized clinical trial (iRCT) of glucosamine for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) [abstract]. OASIS - Online Abstract Submission and Invitation System™ ©1996–2004, Coe-Truman Technologies, Inc. 2003.
  • 40
    Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, Machacek S, Gonzalez C, Giacovelli G, et al. Glucosamine sulfate as an osteoarthritis disease modification agent: a confirmatory, long-term, randomized, placebo-controlled, independent study [abstract]. EULAR Abstract Archive at: 2001.
  • 41
    Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, Machacek S, Giacovelli G, Rovati LC. A long-term, randomized, placebo-controlled, confirmatory trial on the effects of glucosamine sulfate on knee osteoarthritis progression [abstract]. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2000; 8 Suppl B: S6S7.
  • 42
    Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Henrotin Y, Gatterova J, Machacek S, Gonzalez C, et al. Glucosamine sulfate slows-down osteoarthritis progression in postmenopausal women: pooled analysis of two large, independent, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective 3-year trials. EULAR Abstract Archive at: 2002.
  • 43
    Bruyere O, Pavelka K, Rovati LC, Deroisy R, Olejarova M, Gatterova J, et al. Glucosamine sulfate reduces osteoarthritis progression in postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis: evidence from two 3-year studies. Menopause 2004; 11: 13843.
  • 44
    Kumbare DA, Conquer J, Barban J, Tannis A, Brown L, Adachi J. Effects of glucosamine on pain and functioning in Canadians with osteoarthritis of the knee [abstract]. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003; 84: A10A11.
  • 45
    Rovati LC. The clinical profile of glucosamine sulfate as a selective symptom modifying drug in osteoarthritis: current data and perspectives [abstract]. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1997; 5( Suppl A): 72.
  • 46
    Clegg DO, Reda DJ, Harris CL, Klein MA, O'Dell JR, Hooper MM, et al. Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 795808.
  • 47
    Herrero-Beaumont G, Roman JA, Trabado MC, Blanco FJ, Benito P, Martin-Mola E, et al. Effects of glucosamine sulfate on 6-month control of knee osteoarthritis symptoms vs placebo and acetaminophen: results from the Glucosamine Unum in Die Efficacy (GUIDE) Trial [abstract]. OASIS - Online Abstract Submission and Invitation System™ ©1996-2006, Coe-Truman Technologies, Inc. 2005.
  • 48
    Usha P, Naidu M. Randomised, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study of oral glucosamine, methylsulfonylmethane and their combination in osteoarthritis. Clin Drug Investig 2004; 24: 35363.
  • 49
    McAlindon T, Formica M, LaValley M, Lehmer M, Kabbara K. Effectiveness of glucosamine for symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: results from an internet-based randomized double-blind controlled trial. Am J Med 2004; 117: 6439.
  • 50
    Cibere J, Kopec JA, Thorne A, Singer J, Canvin J, Robinson DB, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled glucosamine discontinuation trial in knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 73845.
  • 51
    Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, Machacek S, Giacovelli G, Rovati LC. Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: a 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med 2002; 162: 211323.
  • 52
    Hughes R, Carr A. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of glucosamine sulphate as an analgesic in osteoarthritis of the knee. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2002; 41: 27984.
  • 53
    Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC, Lee RL, Lejeune E, Bruyere O, et al. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulphate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lancet 2001; 357: 2516.
  • 54
    Rindone JP, Hiller D, Collacott E, Nordhaugen N, Arriola G. Randomized, controlled trial of glucosamine for treating osteoarthritis of the knee. West J Med 2000; 172: 914.
  • 55
    Houpt JB, McMillan R, Wein C, Paget-Dellio SD. Effect of glucosamine hydrochloride in the treatment of pain of osteoarthritis of the knee. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 242330.
  • 56
    Reichelt A, Forster KK, Fischer M, Rovati LC, Setnikar I. Efficacy and safety of intramuscular glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arzneimittelforschung 1994; 44: 7580.
  • 57
    Noack W, Fischer M, Forster KK, Rovati LC, Setnikar I. Glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1994; 2: 519.
  • 58
    Vajaradul Y. Double-blind clinical evaluation of intra-articular glucosamine in outpatients with gonarthrosis. Clin Ther 1981; 3: 33643.
  • 59
    Pujalte J, Llavore E, Ylescupidez F. Double-blind clinical evaluation of oral glucosamine sulphate in the basic treatment of osteoarthrosis. Curr Med Res Opin 1980; 7: 1104.
  • 60
    Hill CL, LaValley MP, Felson DT. Discrepancy between published report and actual conduct of randomized clinical trials. J Clin Epidemiol 2002; 55: 7836.