• 1
    Gomez-Reino JJ, Carmona L, Valverde VR, Mola EM, Montero MD, for the BIOBADASER Group. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may predispose to significant increase in tuberculosis risk: a multicenter active-surveillance report. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 21227.
  • 2
    Carmona L, Gomez-Reino JJ, Rodriguez-Valverde V, Montero D, Pascual-Gomez E, Mola EM, et al. Effectiveness of recommendations to prevent reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection in patients treated with tumor necrosis factor antagonists. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 176672.
  • 3
    BIOBADASER Scientific Committee. BIOBADASER: Spanish registry of adverse events of biological therapies in rheumatic diseases. Rev Esp Reumatol 2002; 29: 2929. In Spanish.
  • 4
    EuroTB, and the WHO Collaborating Centre for the Surveillance of Tuberculosis in Europe. Surveillance of tuberculosis in Europe: report on tuberculosis cases notified in 2004. Saint-Maurice (France): Institut de Veille Sanitaire; 2006. URL:
  • 5
    Carmona L, Hernandez-Garcia C, Vadillo C, Pato E, Balsa A, Gonzalez-Alvaro I, et al, for the EMECAR Study Group. Increased risk of tuberculosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 14369.
  • 6
    Arts DG, de Keizer NF, Scheffer GJ. Defining and improving data quality in medical registries: a literature review, case study, and generic framework. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2002; 9: 60011.
  • 7
    Karam V, Gunson B, Roggen F, Grande L, Wannoff W, Janssen M, et al. Quality control of the European Liver Transplant Registry: results of audit visits to the contributing centers. Transplantation 2003; 75: 216773.
  • 8
    Caminiti C, Scoditti U, Diodati F, Passalacqua R. How to promote, improve and test adherence to scientific evidence in clinical practice. BMC Health Serv Res 2005; 5: 62. URL:
  • 9
    Tierney WM, Overhage JM, Takesue BY, Harris LE, Murray MD, Vargo DL, et al. Computerizing guidelines to improve care and patient outcomes: the example of heart failure. J Am Med Inform Assoc 1995; 2: 31622.
  • 10
    Katz DA, and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Barriers between guidelines and improved patient care: an analysis of AHCPR's Unstable Angina Clinical Practice Guideline. Health Serv Res 1999; 34: 37789.
  • 11
    Shiffman RN, Dixon J, Brandt C, Essaihi A, Hsiao A, Michel G, et al. The GuideLine Implementability Appraisal (GLIA): development of an instrument to identify obstacles to guideline implementation. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2005; 5: 23.
  • 12
    Lee LM, Lobato MN, Buskin SE, Morse A, Costa OS. Low adherence to guidelines for preventing TB among persons with newly diagnosed HIV infection, United States. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2006; 10: 20914.
  • 13
    Uduman SA, Bener A, Bin Othman SA. Neonatal BCG vaccination and tuberculin skin sensitivity among schoolchildren of the United Arab Emirates. Ann Trop Paediatr 1996; 16: 3537.
  • 14
    Mudido PM, Guwatudde D, Nakakeeto MK, Bukenya GB, Nsamba D, Johnson JL, et al. The effect of bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination at birth on tuberculin skin test reactivity in Ugandan children. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1999; 3: 8915.
  • 15
    Lockman S, Tappero JW, Kenyon TA, Rumisha D, Huebner RE, Binkin NJ. Tuberculin reactivity in a pediatric population with high BCG vaccination coverage. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1999; 3: 2330.
  • 16
    Yeh YP, Luh DL, Chang SH, Suo J, Chang HJ, Chen TH. Tuberculin reactivity in adults after 50 years of universal bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination in Taiwan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2005; 99: 50916.
  • 17
    Hizel K, Maral I, Karakus R, Aktas F. The influence of BCG immunisation on tuberculin reactivity and booster effect in adults in a country with a high prevalence of tuberculosis. Clin Microbiol Infect 2004; 10: 9803.
  • 18
    Mazurek GH, Jereb J, Lobue P, Iademarco MF, Metchock B, Vernon A, and the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Guidelines for using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, United States [published erratum appears in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2005;54:1288]. MMWR Recomm Rep 2005; 54: 4955.
  • 19
    Saunders BM, Tran S, Ruuls S, Sedgwick JD, Briscoe H, Britton WJ. Transmembrane TNF is sufficient to initiate cell migration and granuloma formation and provide acute, but not long-term, control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Immunol 2005; 174: 48529.
  • 20
    Olleros ML, Guler R, Corazza N, Vesin D, Eugster HP, Marchal G, et al. Transmembrane TNF induces an efficient cell-mediated immunity and resistance to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin infection in the absence of secreted TNF and lymphotoxin-α. J Immunol 2002; 168: 3394401.
  • 21
    Scott DL, Kingsley GH. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis [review]. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 70412.
  • 22
    Wallis RS, Broder MS, Wong JY, Hanson ME, Beenhouwer DO. Granulomatous infectious diseases associated with tumor necrosis factor antagonists. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38: 12615.