• 1
    Woolf AD, Pfleger B. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions. Bull World Health Organ 2003; 81: 64656.
  • 2
    Felson DT, Zhang Y, Anthony JM, Naimark A, Anderson JJ. Weight loss reduces the risk for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in women: the Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med 1992; 116: 5359.
  • 3
    Bruce B, Fries JF, Lubeck DP. Aerobic exercise and its impact on musculoskeletal pain in older adults: a 14 year prospective, longitudinal study. Arthritis Res Ther 2005; 7: R126370.
  • 4
    Alderson M, Starr L, Gow S, Moreland J. The program for rheumatic independent self-management: a pilot evaluation. Clin Rheumatol 1999; 18: 28392.
  • 5
    Chodosh J, Morton SC, Mojica W, Maglione M, Suttorp MJ, Hilton L, et al. Meta-analysis: chronic disease self-management programs for older adults. Ann Intern Med 2005; 143: 42738.
  • 6
    Warsi A, LaValley MP, Wang PS, Avorn J, Solomon DH. Arthritis self-management education programs: a meta-analysis of the effect on pain and disability. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 220713.
  • 7
    Buszewicz M, Rait G, Griffin M, Nazareth I, Patel A, Atkinson A, et al. Self management of arthritis in primary care: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2006; 333: 879.
  • 8
    Peat G, McCarney R, Croft P. Knee pain and osteoarthritis in older adults: a review of community burden and current use of primary health care. Ann Rheum Dis 2001; 60: 917.
  • 9
    Grol R, Grimshaw J. From best evidence to best practice: effective implementation of change in patients' care. Lancet 2003; 362: 122530.
  • 10
    Grimshaw JM, Thomas RE, MacLennan G, Fraser C, Ramsay CR, Vale L, et al. Effectiveness and efficiency of guideline dissemination and implementation strategies. Health Technol Assess 2004; 8: iii72.
  • 11
    Wensing M, Broge B, Kaufmann-Kolle P, Andres E, Szecsenyi J. Quality circles to improve prescribing patterns in primary medical care: what is their actual impact? J Eval Clin Pract 2004; 10: 45766.
  • 12
    Gensichen J, Beyer M, Muth C, Gerlach FM, Von Korff M, Ormel J. Case management to improve major depression in primary health care: a systematic review. Psychol Med 2006; 36: 714.
  • 13
    Wagner EH. The role of patient care teams in chronic disease management. BMJ 2000; 320: 56972.
  • 14
    Von Korff M, Goldberg D. Improving outcomes in depression [editorial]. BMJ 2001; 323: 9489.
  • 15
    Campbell MJ. Cluster randomized trials in general (family) practice research. Stat Methods Med Res 2000; 9: 8194.
  • 16
    Altman R, Alarcon G, Appelrouth D, Bloch D, Borenstein D, Brandt K, et al. The American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis of the hip. Arthritis Rheum 1991; 34: 50514.
  • 17
    Altman R, Asch E, Bloch D, Bole G, Borenstein D, Brandt K, et al. Development of criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis: classification of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Rheum 1986; 29: 103949.
  • 18
    Regulla DF, Eder H. Patient exposure in medical x-ray imaging in Europe. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2005; 114: 1125.
  • 19
    Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjostrom M, Bauman AE, Booth ML, Ainsworth BE, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003; 35: 138195.
  • 20
    Lam CL, Lauder IJ. The impact of chronic diseases on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of Chinese patients in primary care. Fam Pract 2000; 17: 15966.
  • 21
    Rosemann T, Backenstrass M, Joest K, Rosemann A, Szecsenyi J, Laux G. Predictors of depression in a sample of 1,021 primary care patients with osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 57: 41522.
  • 22
    Lowe B, Kroenke K, Herzog W, Grafe K. Measuring depression outcome with a brief self-report instrument: sensitivity to change of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). J Affect Disord 2004; 81: 616.
  • 23
    Campbell MK, Thomson S, Ramsay CR, MacLennan GS, Grimshaw JM. Sample size calculator for cluster randomized trials. Comput Biol Med 2004; 34: 11325.
  • 24
    Rosemann T, Korner T, Wensing M, Schneider A, Szecsenyi J. Evaluation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the AIMS2-SF questionnaire (German AIMS2-SF). Rheumatology (Oxford) 2005; 44: 11905.
  • 25
    University of Aberdeen. Empirical estimates of ICCs from changing professional practice studies. 2005. URL:
  • 26
    Campbell M, Fitzpatrick R, Haines A, Kinmonth AL, Sandercock P, Spiegelhalter D, et al. Framework for design and evaluation of complex interventions to improve health. BMJ 2000; 321: 6946.
  • 27
    Rosemann T, Wensing M, Joest K, Backenstrass M, Mahler C, Szecsenyi J. Problems and needs for improving primary care of osteoarthritis patients: the views of patients, general practitioners and practice nurses. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2006; 7: 48.
  • 28
    Rosemann T, Joos S, Koerner T, Szecsenyi J, Laux G. Comparison of AIMS2-SF, WOMAC, x-ray and a global physician assessment in order to approach quality of life in patients suffering from osteoarthritis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2006; 7: 6.
  • 29
    Goldstein MG, Whitlock EP, DePue J, and the Planning Committee of the Addressing Multiple Behavioral Risk Factors in Primary Care Project. Multiple behavioral risk factor interventions in primary care: summary of research evidence. Am J Prev Med 2004; 27 Suppl 2: 6179.
  • 30
    Mazieres B, Bannwarth B, Dougados M, Lequesne M. EULAR recommendations for the management of knee osteoarthritis: report of a task force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutic Trials. Joint Bone Spine 2001; 68: 23140.
  • 31
    Zhang W, Doherty M, Arden N, Bannwarth B, Bijlsma J, Gunther KP, et al. EULAR evidence based recommendations for the management of hip osteoarthritis: report of a task force of the EULAR Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: 66981.
  • 32
    Lasek R, Mueller-Oerlinghausen B. Empfehlungen zur Therapie von degenerativen Gelenkerkrankungen. Köln: Ständige Arzneimittelkommission der deutschen Ärzteschaft; 2001.
  • 33
    Campbell MK, Grimshaw JM, Elbourne DR. Intracluster correlation coefficients in cluster randomized trials: empirical insights into how should they be reported. BMC Med Res Methodol 2004; 4: 9.
  • 34
    Bloom BS. Effects of continuing medical education on improving physician clinical care and patient health: a review of systematic reviews. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2005; 21: 3805.
  • 35
    Rene J, Weinberger M, Mazzuca SA, Brandt KD, Katz BP. Reduction of joint pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis who have received monthly telephone calls from lay personnel and whose medical treatment regimens have remained stable. Arthritis Rheum 1992; 35: 5115.
  • 36
    Van Dam HA, van der Horst FG, Knoops L, Ryckman RM, Crebolder HF, van den Borne BH. Social support in diabetes: a systematic review of controlled intervention studies. Patient Educ Couns 2005; 59: 112.
  • 37
    Gensichen J, Beyer M, Kuver C, Wang H, Gerlach FM. Case management for patients with congestive heart failure under ambulatory care: a critical review. Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich 2004; 98: 14354. In German.
  • 38
    Moher M, Yudkin P, Wright L, Turner R, Fuller A, Schofield T, et al. Cluster randomised controlled trial to compare three methods of promoting secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in primary care. BMJ 2001; 322: 1338.
  • 39
    Engers AJ, Wensing M, van Tulder MW, Timmermans A, Oostendorp RA, Koes BW, et al. Implementation of the Dutch low back pain guideline for general practitioners: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Spine 2005; 30: 559600.
  • 40
    Wu JY, Leung WY, Chang S, Lee B, Zee B, Tong PC, et al. Effectiveness of telephone counselling by a pharmacist in reducing mortality in patients receiving polypharmacy: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2006; 333: 522.
  • 41
    Bower P, Rowland N. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of counselling in primary care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 3: CD001025.
  • 42
    Elley CR, Kerse N, Arroll B, Robinson E. Effectiveness of counselling patients on physical activity in general practice: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2003; 326: 793.
  • 43
    Castro CM, King AC. Telephone-assisted counseling for physical activity. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2002; 30: 648.