• 1
    Helmick CG, Felson DT, Lawrence RC, Gabriel S, Hirsch R, Maradit Kremers H, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part I. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 58: 1525.
  • 2
    Cunningham LS, Kelsey JL. Epidemiology of musculoskeletal impairments and associated disability. Am J Public Health 1984; 74: 5749.
  • 3
    Kellgren JH, Lawrence JS. Radiological assessment of osteoarthrosis. Ann Rheum Dis 1957; 16: 494501.
  • 4
    Dillon CF, Rasch EK, Gu Q, Hirsch R. Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in the United States: arthritis data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1991–1994. J Rheumatol 2006; 33: 22719.
  • 5
    Felson DT, Naimark A, Anderson J, Kazis L, Castelli W, Meenan RF. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly: the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 9148.
  • 6
    Zhang Y, Niu J, Kelly-Hayes M, Chaisson CE, Aliabadi P, Felson DT. Prevalence of symptomatic hand osteoarthritis and its impact on functional status among elderly: the Framingham Study. Am J Epidemiol 2002; 156: 10217.
  • 7
    Jordan JM, Helmick CG, Renner JB, Luta G, Woodard J, Dragomir AD, et al. Prevalence of knee symptoms and radiographic and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in African-Americans and Caucasians: the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project. J Rheumatol 2007; 34: 17280.
  • 8
    Nevitt MC, Lane NE, Scott JC, Hochberg MC, Pressman AR, Genant HK, et al, and the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Radiographic osteoarthritis of the hip and bone mineral density. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 90716.
  • 9
    Sowers M, Lachance L, Hochberg M, Jamadar D. Radiographically defined osteoarthritis of the hand and knee in young and middle-aged African-American and Caucasian women. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2000; 8: 6977.
  • 10
    Helmick C, Renner JB, Luta G, Dragomir AD, Kalsbeek W, Abbate L, et al. Prevalence of hip pain, radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA), severe radiographic hip OA, and symptomatic hip OA: the Johnson County Osteoarthritis Project [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48 Suppl 9: S212.
  • 11
    Lawrence RC, Helmick CG, Arnett FC, Deyo RA, Felson DT, Giannini EH, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and selected musculoskeletal disorders in the United States. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 77899.
  • 12
    Smith CA, Fidler WJ, Pinals RS. The epidemiology of giant cell arteritis: report of a ten-year study in Shelby County, Tennessee. Arthritis Rheum 1983; 26: 12149.
  • 13
    Salvarani C, Cantini F, Boiardi L, Hunder GG. Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant-cell arteritis. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 26171.
  • 14
    Weyand CM, Goronzy JJ. Giant-cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. Ann Intern Med 2003; 139: 50515.
  • 15
    Hunder GG, Bloch DA, Michel BA, Stevens MB, Arend WP, Calabrese LH, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of giant cell arteritis. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33: 11228.
  • 16
    Doran MF, Crowson CS, O'Fallon WM, Hunder GG, Gabriel SE. Trends in the incidence of polymyalgia rheumatica over a 30 year period in Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 16947.
  • 17
    Salvarani C, Crowson CS, O'Fallon WM, Hunder GG, Gabriel SE. Reappraisal of the epidemiology of giant cell arteritis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, over a 50-year period. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 2648.
  • 18
    Petursdottir V, Johansson H, Nordborg E, Nordborg C. The epidemiology of biopsy-positive giant cell arteritis: special reference to cyclic fluctuations. Rheumatology (Oxford) 1999; 38: 120812.
  • 19
    Gran JT, Myklebust G. The incidence of polymyalgia rheumatica and temporal arteritis in the county of Aust Agder, south Norway: a prospective study 1987–94. J Rheumatol 1997; 24: 173943.
  • 20
    Baldursson O, Steinsson K, Bjornsson J, Lie JT. Giant cell arteritis in Iceland: an epidemiologic and histopathologic analysis. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 100712.
  • 21
    Gonzalez-Gay MA, Garcia-Porrua C, Rivas MJ, Rodriguez-Ledo P, Llorca J. Epidemiology of biopsy proven giant cell arteritis in northwestern Spain: trend over an 18 year period. Ann Rheum Dis 2001; 60: 36771.
  • 22
    Wallace SL, Robinson H, Masi AT, Decker JL, McCarty DJ, Yu TF. Preliminary criteria for the classification of the acute arthritis of primary gout. Arthritis Rheum 1977; 20: 895900.
  • 23
    Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, Willett WC, Curhan G. Purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake, and the risk of gout in men. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 1093103.
  • 24
    Roubenoff R. Gout and hyperuricemia. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1990; 16: 53950.
  • 25
    Mikkelsen WM, Dodge HJ, Duff IF, Kato H. Estimates of the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in the population of Tecumseh, Michigan, 1959–60. J Chronic Dis 1967; 20: 35169.
  • 26
    Hall AP, Barry PE, Dawber TR, McNamara PM. Epidemiology of gout and hyperuricemia: a long-term population study. Am J Med 1967; 42: 2737.
  • 27
    O'Sullivan JB. Gout in a New England town: a prevalence study in Sudbury, Massachusetts. Ann Rheum Dis 1972; 31: 1669.
  • 28
    Brochner-Mortensen K, Cobb S, Rose BS. Report of sub-committee on criteria for the diagnosis of gout in surveys. In: KellgrenJH, JeffreyMR, BallJF, editors. The epidemiology of chronic rheumatism. Vol. I. Philadelphia: FA Davis; 1963. p. 2957.
  • 29
    BennettPH, WoodPH, editors. Population studies of the rheumatic diseases. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica; 1968.
  • 30
    Adams PF, Hendershot GE, Marano MA. Current estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 1996. National Center for Health Statistics. URL:
  • 31
    Wallace KL, Riedel AA, Joseph-Ridge N, Wortmann R. Increasing prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia over 10 years among older adults in a managed care population. J Rheumatol 2004; 31: 15827.
  • 32
    Kramer HM, Curhan G. The association between gout and nephrolithiasis: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 40: 3742.
  • 33
    Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB, Bennett RM, Bombardier C, Goldenberg DL, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia: report of the multicenter criteria committee. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33: 16072.
  • 34
    Wolfe F, Ross K, Anderson J, Russell IJ. Aspects of fibromyalgia in the general population: sex, pain threshold, and fibromyalgia symptoms. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 1516.
  • 35
    Gracely RH, Grant MA, Giesecke T. Evoked pain measures in fibromyalgia. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2003; 17: 593609.
  • 36
    MacFarlane GJ, Croft PR, Schollum J, Silman AJ. Widespread pain: is an improved classification possible? J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 162832.
  • 37
    Buskila D, Press J, Abu-Shakra M. Fibromyalgia in systemic lupus erythematosus: prevalence and clinical implications. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2003; 25: 258.
  • 38
    Wolfe F, Ross K, Anderson J, Russell IJ, Hebert L. The prevalence and characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 1928.
  • 39
    White KP, Speechley M, Harth M, Ostbye T. The London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study: the prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome in London, Ontario. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 15706.
  • 40
    Katz JN, Larson MG, Sabra A, Krarup C, Stirrat CR, Sethi R, et al. The carpal tunnel syndrome: diagnostic utility of the history and physical examination findings. Ann Intern Med 1990; 112: 3217.
  • 41
    Tanaka S, Wild DK, Cameron LL, Freund E. Association of occupational and non-occupational risk factors with the self-reported carpal tunnel syndrome in a national survey of the working population. Am J Ind Med 1997; 32: 5506.
  • 42
    Katz JN, Stirrat CR, Larson MG, Fossel AH, Eaton HM, Liang MH. A self-administered hand symptom diagram for the diagnosis and epidemiologic study of carpal tunnel syndrome. J Rheumatol 1990; 17: 14958.
  • 43
    Ferry S, Silman AJ, Pritchard T, Keenan J, Croft P. The association between different patterns of hand symptoms and objective evidence of median nerve compression: a community-based survey. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 7204.
  • 44
    Atroshi I, Gummesson C, Johnsson R, Ornstein E, Ranstam J, Rosen I. Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in a general population. JAMA 1999; 282: 1538.
  • 45
    Ferry S, Pritchard T, Keenan J, Croft P, Silman AJ. Estimating the prevalence of delayed median nerve conduction in the general population. Br J Rheumatol 1998; 37: 6305.
  • 46
    De Krom MC, Knipschild PG, Kester AD, Thijs CT, Boekkooi PF, Spaans F. Carpal tunnel syndrome: prevalence in the general population. J Clin Epidemiol 1992; 45: 37376.
  • 47
    Tanaka S, Wild DK, Seligman PJ, Behrens V, Cameron L, Putz-Anderson V. The US prevalence of self-reported carpal tunnel syndrome: 1988 National Health Interview Survey data. Am J Public Health 1994; 84: 18468.
  • 48
    Deyo RA, Weinstein JN. Low back pain. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 36370.
  • 49
    White AA, Gordon SL. Synopsis: workshop on idiopathic low back pain. Spine 1982; 7: 1419.
  • 50
    Lethbridge-Cejku M, Schiller JS, Bernadel L. Summary health statistics for United States adults: National Health Interview Survey 2002. National Center for Health Statistics; 2004. DHHS publication (PHS) 2004-1550.
  • 51
    US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy people 2010. 2nd ed. With: Understanding and improving health and objectives for improving health. 2 vols. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 2000.
  • 52
    Sternbach RA. Survey of pain in the United States: the Nuprin pain report. Clin J Pain 1986; 2: 4953.
  • 53
    Deyo RA, Tsui-Wu YJ. Descriptive epidemiology of low back pain and its related medical care in the United States. Spine 1987; 12: 2648.
  • 54
    Frymoyer JW, Pope MH, Clements JH, Wilder DG, MacPherson B, Ashikaga T. Risk factors in low-back pain: an epidemiological survey. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1983; 65: 2138.
  • 55
    Olsen TL, Anderson RL, Dearwater SR, Kriska AM, Cauley JA, Aaron DJ, et al. The epidemiology of low back pain in an adolescent population. Am J Public Health 1992; 82: 6068.
  • 56
    Nagi SZ, Riley LE, Newby LG. A social epidemiology of back pain in a general population. J Chronic Dis 1973; 26: 76979.
  • 57
    Reisbord LS, Greenland S. Factors associated with self-reported back pain prevalence: a population-based study. J Chronic Dis 1985; 38: 691702.
  • 58
    Kelsey JL, Golder AL, Mundt DJ. Low back pain/prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1990; 163: 699715.
  • 59
    Kelsey JL, White AA. Epidemiology and impact of low back pain. Spine 1980; 5: 13342.
  • 60
    Taylor H, Curran NM. The Nuprin report. New York: Louis Harris & Associates; 1985.
  • 61
    Boden SD, Davis DO, Dina TS, Patronas NJ, Wiesel SW. Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects: a prospective study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990; 72: 4038.
  • 62
    Jarvik J, Hollingworth W, Heagerty P, Haynor DR, Deyo RA. The Longitudinal Assessment of Imaging and Disability of the Back (LAIDBack) Study: baseline data. Spine 2001; 26: 115866.
  • 63
    Klein RJ, Schoenborn CA. Age adjustment using the 2000 projected US population. National Center for Health Statistics; January 2001. Healthy people statistical notes, no. 20. URL:
  • 64
    Adams PF, Hardy AM. Current estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 1998. Vital Health Stat 10 1989; 173: 1250.
  • 65
    Benson V, Marano MA. Current estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 1992. Vital Health Stat 10 1994; 189: 1269.