• 1
    Woolf AD, Pfleger B. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions. Bull World Health Organ 2003; 81: 64656.
  • 2
    Battie MC, Videman T, Gibbon LE, Fisher LD, Manninen H, Gill K. Determinants of lumbar disc degeneration: a study relating lifetime exposures and magnetic resonance imaging findings in identical twins. Spine 1995; 20: 260112.
  • 3
    Sambrook PN, MacGregor AJ, Spector TD. Genetic influences on cervical and lumbar disc degeneration: a magnetic resonance imaging study in twins. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 36672.
  • 4
    Ala-Kokko L. Genetic risk factors for lumbar disc disease. Ann Med 2002; 34: 427.
  • 5
    Battie MC, Videman T, Parent E. Lumbar disc degeneration: epidemiology and genetic influences. Spine 2004; 29: 267990.
  • 6
    Paassilta P, Lohiniva J, Goring HH, Perala M, Raina SS, Karppinen J, et al. Identification of a novel common risk factor for lumbar disc disease. JAMA 2001; 285: 18439.
  • 7
    Kawaguchi Y, Osada R, Kanamori M, Ishihara H, Ohmori K, Matsui H, et al. Association between an aggrecan gene polymorphism and lumbar disc degeneration. Spine 1999; 24: 245660.
  • 8
    Solovieva S, Leino-Arjas SK, Ala-Kokko L, Luomo K, Raininko R, Saarela J, et al. Interleukin 1 polymorphisms and intervertebral disc degeneration. Epidemiology 2004; 15: 62633.
  • 9
    Noponen-Hietala N, Virtanen I, Karttunen R, Schwenke S, Jakkula E, Li H, et al. Genetic variations in IL6 associated with intervertebral disc disease characterized by sciatica. Pain 2005; 114: 18694.
  • 10
    Seki S, Kawaguchi Y, Chiba K, Mikami Y, Kizawa H, Oya T, et al. A functional SNP in CILP, encoding cartilage intermediate layer protein, is associated with susceptibility to lumbar disc disease. Nat Genet 2005; 37: 60712.
  • 11
    Videman T, Gibbons LE, Battie MC, Maravilla K, Vanninen E, Leppavuori J, et al. The relative roles of intragenic polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene in lumbar spine degeneration and bone density. Spine 2001; 26: A1A6.
  • 12
    Sahlman J, Inkinen R, Hirvonen T, Lammi MJ, Lammi PE, Nieminen J, et al. Premature vertebral endplate ossification and mild disc degeneration in mice after inactivation of one allele belonging to the Col2a1 gene for type II collagen. Spine 2001; 26: 255865.
  • 13
    Sarver JJ, Elliott DM. Altered disc mechanics in mice genetically engineered for reduced type I collagen. Spine 2004; 29: 10948.
  • 14
    Annunen S, Paassilta P, Lohiniva J, Perala M, Pihlajamaa T, Karppinen J, et al. An allele of COL9A2 associated with intervertebral disc disease. Science 1999; 285: 40912.
  • 15
    Matsui Y, Mirza SK, Wu JJ, Carter B, Bellabarba C, Shaffrey CI, et al. The association of lumbar spondylolisthesis with collagen IX tryptophan alleles. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2004; 86: 10216.
  • 16
    Jim JJ, Noponen-Hietala N, Cheung KM, Ott J, Karppinin J, Sahravand A, et al. The TRP2 allele of COL9A2 is an age-dependent risk factor for the development and severity of intervertebral disc degeneration. Spine 2005; 30: 273542.
  • 17
    Olsen BR, Ninomiya Y. FACIT collagens. In: KreisT, ValeR, editors. Guidebook to the extracellular matrix, anchor, and adhesion proteins. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1999. p. 38792.
  • 18
    Eyre DR, Matsui Y, Wu JJ. Collagen polymorphisms of the intervertebral disc. Biochem Soc Trans 2002; 30: 8448.
  • 19
    Eyre DR, Wu JJ, Fernandes RJ, Pietka TA, Weis MA. Recent developments in cartilage research: matrix biology of the collagen II/IX/XI heterofibril network. Biochem Soc Trans 2002; 30: 8949.
  • 20
    Nakata K, Ono K, Miyazaki J, Olsen BR, Muragaki Y, Adachi E, et al. Osteoarthritis associated with mild chondrodysplasia in transgenic mice expressing α1(IX) collagen chains with a central deletion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993; 90: 28704.
  • 21
    Fassler R, Schnegelsberg PN, Dausman J, Shinya T, Muragaki Y, McCarthy MT, et al. Mice lacking α1 (IX) collagen develop noninflammatory degenerative joint disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994; 91: 50704.
  • 22
    Hagg R, Hedbom E, Mollers U, Aszodi A, Fassler R, Bruckner P. Absence of the α1(IX) chain leads to a functional knock-out of the entire collagen IX protein in mice. J Biol Chem 1997; 272: 206504.
  • 23
    Cao L, Yuon I, Guilak F, Setton LA. Compressive properties of mouse articular cartilage determined in a novel micro-indentation test method and biphasic finite element model. J Biomech Engineering 2006; 128: 76671.
  • 24
    Hu K, Xu L, Cao L, Flahiff CM, Brussiau J, Ho K, et al. Pathogenesis of osteoarthritis-like changes in joints of mice deficient in type IX collagen. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 2891900.
  • 25
    Roberts S, Menage J, Duance J, Wotton V, Ayad S. Collagen types around the cells of the intervertebral disc and cartilage endplate: an immunolocalization study. Spine 1991; 16: 10308.
  • 26
    Nerlich AG, Schleicher ED, Boos N. Immunohistologic markers for age-related changes of human lumbar intervertebral discs. Spine 1997; 22: 278195.
  • 27
    Chambers MG, Cox L, Chong L, Suri N, Cover P, Bayliss MT, et al. Matrix metalloproteinases and aggrecanases cleave aggrecan in different zones of normal cartilage but colocalize in the development of osteoarthritic lesions in STR/ort mice. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 145565.
  • 28
    Glasson SS, Askew R, Sheppard B, Carito BA, Blanchet T, Ma HL, et al. Characterization of and osteoarthritis susceptibility in ADAMTS-4–knockout mice. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 254758.
  • 29
    Boos N, Weissbach S, Rohrbach H, Weiler C, Spratt KF, Nerlich AG. Classification of age-related changes in lumbar intervertebral discs. Spine 2002; 27: 263144.
  • 30
    Nelson JC, Pepe MS. Statistical description of interrater variability in ordinal ratings. Stat Methods Med Res 2000; 9: 47596.
  • 31
    Landis JR, Koch GG. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics 1977; 33: 15974.
  • 32
    Boyd LM, Richardson WJ, Li Y, Flahiff CM, Alexopoulos LG, Guilak F, et al. Evaluation of intervertebral disc degeneration in mice harboring gene mutations for types VI, IX and XI collagens. Trans Orthop Research Soc 2005; 30: P374.
  • 33
    Buckwalter JA. Aging and degeneration of the human intervertebral disc. Spine 1995; 20: 130714.
  • 34
    Roberts S, Evans EH, Kletsas D, Jaffray DC, Eisenstein SM. Senescence in human intervertebral discs. Eur Spine J 2006; 15 Suppl 3: S31216.
  • 35
    Haefeli M, Kalberer F, Saegesser D, Nerlich AG, Boos N, Paesold G. The course of macroscopic degeneration in the human lumbar intervertebral disc. Spine 2006; 31: 152231.
  • 36
    Crawley JN. What's wrong with my mouse? Behavioral phenotyping of transgenic and knockout mice. New York: Wiley-Liss; 2000. p. 25.
  • 37
    Zurcher C, Zwieten MJ, Solleveld HA, Hollander CF. Aging research. In: FosterHL, SmallJD, FoxJG, editors. The mouse in biomedical research. New York: Academic Press; 1982. p. 135.
  • 38
    Thompson JP, Pearce RH, Schechter MT, Adams ME, Tsang IK, Bishop PB. Preliminary evaluation of a scheme for grading the gross morphology of the human intervertebral disc. Spine 1990; 15: 4114.
  • 39
    Kettler A, Wilke HJ. Review of existing grading systems for cervical or lumbar disc and facet joint degeneration. Eur Spine J 2006; 15: 70518.
  • 40
    Gunzburg R, Parkinson R, Moore R, Cantraine F, Hutton W, Vernon-Roberts B, et al. A cadaveric study comparing discography, magnetic resonance imaging, histology and mechanical behavior of the human lumbar disc. Spine 1992; 17: 41723.
  • 41
    Berlemann U, Gries NC, Moore RJ. The relationship between height, shape and histological changes in early degeneration of the lower lumbar discs. Eur Spine J 1998; 7: 2127.
  • 42
    Lotz JC, Ulrich JA. Innervation, inflammation, and hypermobility may characterize pathologic disc degeneration: review of animal model data. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2006; 88 Suppl 2: 7682.
  • 43
    Karppinen J, Paakko E, Raina S, Tervonen O, Kurunlahti M, Nieminen P, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in relation to the COL9A2 tryptophan allele among patients with sciatica. Spine 2002; 27: 7882.
  • 44
    Karppinen J, Paakko E, Paassilta P, Lohiniva J, Kurunlahti M, Tervonen O, et al. Radiologic phenotypes in lumbar MR imaging for a gene defect in the COL9A3 gene of type IX collagen. Radiology 2003; 227: 1438.