• 1
    Gomariz RP, Juarranz Y, Abad C, Arranz A, Leceta J, Martinez C. VIP-PACAP system in immunity: new insights for multitarget therapy [review]. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006; 1070: 5174.
  • 2
    Gonzalez-Rey E, Chorny A, Delgado M. Regulation of immune tolerance by anti-inflammatory neuropeptides. Nat Rev Immunol 2007; 7: 5263.
  • 3
    Gomariz RP, Martinez C, Abad C, Leceta J, Delgado M. Immunology of VIP: a review and therapeutical perspectives [review]. Curr Pharm Des 2001; 7: 89111.
  • 4
    Harmar AJ, Arimura A, Gozes I, Journot L, Laburthe M, Pisegna JR, et al. International Union of Pharmacology: XVIII. Nomenclature of receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide. Pharmacol Rev 1998; 50: 26570.
  • 5
    Delgado M, Abad C, Martinez C, Leceta J, Gomariz RP. Vasoactive intestinal peptide prevents experimental arthritis by downregulating both autoimmune and inflammatory components of the disease. Nat Med 2001; 7: 5638.
  • 6
    Juarranz Y, Abad C, Martinez C, Arranz A, Gutierrez-Canas I, Rosignoli F, et al. Protective effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide on bone destruction in the collagen-induced arthritis model of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 2005; 7: R103445.
  • 7
    Abad C, Martinez C, Juarranz MG, Arranz A, Leceta J, Delgado M, et al. Therapeutic effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide in the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid model of Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 2003; 124: 96171.
  • 8
    Li H, Mei Y, Wang Y, Xu L. Vasoactive intestinal peptide suppressed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inhibiting T helper 1 responses. J Clin Immunol 2006; 26: 4307.
  • 9
    Lodde BM, Mishiba F, Wang J, Cotrim AP, Afiore S, Tak PP, et al. Effect of human vasoactive intestinal peptide gene transfer in a murine model of Sjogren's syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 195200.
  • 10
    Rosignoli F, Torroba M, Juarranz Y, Garcia-Gomez M, Martinez C, Gomariz RP, et al. VIP and tolerance induction in autoimmunity. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006; 1070: 52530.
  • 11
    Juarranz MG, Santiago B, Torroba M, Gutierrez-Canas I, Palao G, Galindo M, et al. Vasoactive intestinal peptide modulates proinflammatory mediator synthesis in osteoarthritic and rheumatoid synovial cells. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43: 41622.
  • 12
    Gutierrez-Canas I, Juarranz Y, Santiago B, Arranz A, Martinez C, Galindo M, et al. VIP downregulates expression and TLR4-mediated chemokine production in human rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2006; 45: 52732.
  • 13
    Lygren I, Ostensen M, Burhol PG, Husby G. Gastrointestinal peptides in serum and synovial fluid from patients with inflammatory joint disease. Ann Rheum Dis 1986; 45: 63740.
  • 14
    Lygren I, Ostensen M, Burhol PG, Husby G. Concentration of substance P, neurokinin A, calcitonin gene-related peptide, neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in synovial fluid from knee joints in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 1991; 20: 32635.
  • 15
    Martinez C, Delgado M, Abad C, Gomariz RP, Ganea D, Leceta J. Regulation of VIP production and secretion by murine lymphocytes. J Neuroimmunol 1999; 93: 12638.
  • 16
    Huber LC, Distler O, Tarner I, Gay RE, Gay S, Pap T. Synovial fibroblasts: key players in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2006; 45: 66975.
  • 17
    Buckley CD, Pilling D, Lord JM, Akbar AN, Scheel-Toellner D, Salmon M. Fibroblasts regulate the switch from acute resolving to chronic persistent inflammation. Trends Immunol 2001; 22: 199204.
  • 18
    Arnett FC, Edworthy SM, Bloch DA, McShane DJ, Fries JF, Cooper NS, et al. The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 31524.
  • 19
    Gourlet P, Vandermeers A, Vertongen P, Rathe J, De Neef P, Cnudde J, et al. Development of high affinity selective VIP1 receptor agonist. Peptides 1997; 18: 153945.
  • 20
    Gourlet P, De Neef P, Cnudde J, Waelbroeck M, Robberecht P. In vitro properties of a high affinity selective antagonist of the VIP1 receptor. Peptides 1997; 18: 155060.
  • 21
    Gourlet P, Vertongen P, Vandermeers A, Vandermeers-Piret MC, Rathe J, De Neef P, et al. The long-acting vasoactive intestinal polypeptide agonist Ro 25-1553 is highly selective of the VIP2 receptor subclass. Peptides 1997; 18: 4038.
  • 22
    Moro O, Lerner EA. Maxadilan, the vasodilator from sand flies, is a specific pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide type I receptor agonist. J Biol Chem 1997; 272: 96670.
  • 23
    Shen H, Watanabe M, Tomasiewicz H, Rutishauser U, Magnuson T, Glass JD. Role of neural cell adhesion molecule and polysialic acid in mouse circadian clock function. J Neurosci 1997; 17: 52219.
  • 24
    Houslay MD, Metcalfe JC, Warren GB, Hesketh TR, Smith GA. The glucagon receptor of rat liver plasma membrane can couple to adenylate cyclase without activating it. Biochim Biophys Acta 1976; 435: 48994.
  • 25
    Gilman AG. A protein binding assay for adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1970; 67: 30512.
  • 26
    Laburthe M, Couvineau A, Marie JC. VPAC receptors for VIP and PACAP [review]. Receptors Channels 2002; 8: 13753.
  • 27
    Abad C, Gomariz RP, Waschek JA. Neuropeptide mimetics and antagonists in the treatment of inflammatory disease: focus on VIP and PACAP. Curr Top Med Chem 2006; 6: 15163.
  • 28
    Abad C, Martinez C, Leceta J, Gomariz RP, Delgado M. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide inhibits collagen-induced arthritis: an experimental immunomodulatory therapy. J Immunol 2001; 167: 31829.
  • 29
    Juarranz Y, Gutierrez-Canas I, Arranz A, Martinez C, Abad C, Leceta J, et al. VIP decreases TLR4 expression induced by LPS and TNF-α treatment in human synovial fibroblasts. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006; 1070: 35964.
  • 30
    Mapp PI, Kidd BL, Gibson SJ, Terry JM, Revell PA, Ibrahim NB, et al. Substance P-, calcitonin gene-related peptide- and C-flanking peptide of neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive fibres are present in normal synovium but depleted in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Neuroscience 1990; 37: 14353.
  • 31
    Gronblad M, Konttinen YT, Korkala O, Liesi P, Hukkanen M, Polak JM. Neuropeptides in synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 1988; 15: 180710.
  • 32
    Takeba Y, Suzuki N, Kaneko A, Asai T, Sakane T. Evidence for neural regulation of inflammatory synovial cell functions by secreting calcitonin gene–related peptide and vasoactive intestinal peptide in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 241829.
  • 33
    Gomariz RP, Garrido E, Leceta J, Martinez C, Abalo R, Delgado M. Gene expression of VIP receptor in rat lymphocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994; 203: 1599604.
  • 34
    Lara-Marquez ML, O'Dorisio MS, O'Dorisio TM, Shah MH, Karacay B. Selective gene expression and activation-dependent regulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type 1 and type 2 in human T cells. J Immunol 2001; 166: 252230.
  • 35
    Delgado M, Martinez C, Johnson MC, Gomariz RP, Ganea D. Differential expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors 1 and 2 (VIP-R1 and VIP-R2) mRNA in murine lymphocytes. J Neuroimmunol 1996; 68: 2738.
  • 36
    Delgado M, Ganea D. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide inhibit nuclear factor-κB-dependent gene activation at multiple levels in the human monocytic cell line THP-1. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 36980.
  • 37
    Delgado M, Munoz-Elias EJ, Gomariz RP, Ganea D. VIP and PACAP inhibit IL-12 production in LPS-stimulated macrophages: subsequent effect on IFNγ by T cells. J Neuroimmunol 1999; 96: 16781.
  • 38
    Kawakami M, Kimura T, Kishimoto Y, Tatekawa T, Baba Y, Nishizaki T, et al. Preferential expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors VPAC1 in human cord blood-derived CD34+CD38− cells: possible role of VIP as a growth promoting factor for haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Leukemia 2004; 18: 91221.
  • 39
    Pei L. Molecular cloning of a novel transcriptional repressor protein of the rat type I vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor gene. J Biol Chem 1998; 273: 199028.
  • 40
    Dorsam G, Goetzl EJ. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-1 (VPAC-1) is a novel gene target of the hemolymphopoietic transcription factor Ikaros. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 1348893
  • 41
    Ross SE, Williams RO, Mason LJ, Mauri C, Marinova-Mutafchieva L, Malfait AM, et al. Suppression of TNFα expression, inhibition of Th1 activity, and amelioration of collagen-induced arthritis by rolipram. J Immunol 1997; 159: 62539.
  • 42
    Francischi JM, Yokoro CM, Poole S, Tafuri WL, Cunha FK, Teixeira MM. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of the phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor rolipram in a rat model of arthritis. Eur J Pharmacol 2000; 399: 2439.
  • 43
    Groneberg DA, Rabe KF, Fischer A. Novel concepts of neuropeptide-based drug therapy: vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and its receptors. Eur J Pharmacol 2006; 133: 18294.
  • 44
    Linden A, Hansson L, Andersson A, Palmqvist M, Arvidsson P, Lofdahl CG, et al. Bronchodilation by an inhaled VPAC(2) receptor agonist in patients with stable asthma. Thorax 2003; 58: 21721.