• 1
    Dunn KM, Croft PR. Classification of low back pain in primary care: using “bothersomeness” to identify the most severe cases. Spine 2005; 30: 188792.
  • 2
    Croft PR, Macfarlane GJ, Papageorgiou AC, Thomas E, Silman AJ. The outcome of low back pain in general practice: a prospective study. BMJ 1998; 316: 13569.
  • 3
    Deyo RA, Weinstein JN. Low back pain. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 36370.
  • 4
    Glenton C. Chronic back pain sufferers: striving for the sick role. Soc Sci Med 2003; 57: 224352.
  • 5
    Lillrank A. Back pain and the resolution of diagnostic uncertainty in illness narratives. Soc Sci Med 2003; 57: 104554.
  • 6
    Van Tulder M, Becker A, Bekkering T, Breen A, del Real MT, Hutchinson A, et al, and the COST B13 Working Group on Guidelines for the Management of Acute Low Back Pain in Primary Care. Chapter 3: European guidelines for the management of acute nonspecific low back pain in primary care. Eur Spine J 2006; 15 Suppl 2: S16991.
  • 7
    Royal College of General Practitioners. Clinical guidelines for the management of acute low back pain. 2nd ed. London: Royal College of General Practitioners; 1999.
  • 8
    Jellema P, van der Windt DA, van der Horst HE, Stalman WA, Bouter LM. Prediction of an unfavourable course of low back pain in general practice: comparison of four instruments. Br J Gen Pract 2007; 57: 1522.
  • 9
    Main CJ, Williams AC. Musculoskeletal pain. BMJ 2002; 325: 5347.
  • 10
    Bishop A, Foster NE. Do physical therapists in the United Kingdom recognize psychosocial factors in patients with acute low back pain? Spine 2005; 30: 131622.
  • 11
    Boersma K, Linton SJ. Screening to identify patients at risk: profiles of psychological risk factors for early intervention. Clin J Pain 2005; 21: 3843.
  • 12
    Morley S, Vlaeyen JW. Epilogue to the special topic series. Clin J Pain 2005; 21: 6972.
  • 13
    Jellema P, van der Horst HE, Vlaeyen JW, Stalman WA, Bouter LM, van der Windt DA. Predictors of outcome in patients with (sub)acute low back pain differ across treatment groups. Spine 2006; 31: 1699705.
  • 14
    Koes BW, van Tulder MW, Thomas S. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain. BMJ 2006; 332: 14304.
  • 15
    Turk DC. The potential of treatment matching for subgroups of patients with chronic pain: lumping versus splitting. Clin J Pain 2005; 21: 4455.
  • 16
    Childs JD, Fritz JM, Flynn TW, Irrgang JJ, Johnson KK, Majkowski GR, et al. A clinical prediction rule to identify patients with low back pain most likely to benefit from spinal manipulation: a validation study. Ann Intern Med 2004; 141: 9208.
  • 17
    Hicks GE, Fritz JM, Delitto A, McGill SM. Preliminary development of a clinical prediction rule for determining which patients with low back pain will respond to a stabilization exercise program. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005; 86: 175362.
  • 18
    Dionne CE, Bourbonnais R, Fremont P, Rossignol M, Stock SR, Larocque I. A clinical return-to-work rule for patients with back pain. CMAJ 2005; 172: 155967.
  • 19
    Truchon M, Cote D. Predictive validity of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory in subacute low back pain. Pain 2005; 116: 20512.
  • 20
    Duijts SF, Kant IJ, Landeweerd JA, Swaen GM. Prediction of sickness absence: development of a screening instrument. Occup Environ Med 2006; 63: 5649.
  • 21
    Neubauer E, Junge A, Pirron P, Seemann H, Schiltenwolf M. HKF-R 10: screening for predicting chronicity in acute low back pain (LBP). A prospective clinical trial. Eur J Pain 2006; 10: 55966.
  • 22
    Denison E, Asenlof P, Sandborgh M, Lindberg P. Musculoskeletal pain in primary health care: subgroups based on pain intensity, disability, self-efficacy, and fear-avoidance variables. J Pain 2007; 8: 6774.
  • 23
    Brennan GP, Fritz JM, Hunter SJ, Thackeray A, Delitto A, Erhard RE. Identifying subgroups of patients with acute/subacute “nonspecific” low back pain: results of a randomized clinical trial. Spine 2006; 31: 62331.
  • 24
    Fritz JM, Brennan GP, Clifford SN, Hunter SJ, Thackeray A. An examination of the reliability of a classification algorithm for subgrouping patients with low back pain. Spine 2006; 31: 7782.
  • 25
    Hay EM, Mullis R, Lewis M, Vohora K, Main CJ, Watson P, et al. Comparison of physical treatments versus a brief pain-management programme for back pain in primary care: a randomised clinical trial in physiotherapy practice. Lancet 2005; 365: 202430.
  • 26
    Roland M, Morris R. A study of the natural history of back pain. I. Development of a reliable and sensitive measure of disability in low-back pain. Spine 1983; 8: 1414.
  • 27
    Murphy JM, Berwick DM, Weinstein MC, Borus JF, Budman SH, Klerman GL. Performance of screening and diagnostic tests: application of receiver operating characteristic analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1987; 44: 5505.
  • 28
    Altman DG, Royston P. The cost of dichotomising continuous variables. BMJ 2006; 332: 1080.
  • 29
    Terwee CB, Bot SD, de Boer MR, van der Windt DA, Knol DL, Dekker J, et al. Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. J Clin Epidemiol 2007; 60: 3442.
  • 30
    Dunn KM. Epidemiology of low back pain in primary care: a cohort study of consulters. PhD Thesis. Keele: Keele University; 2004.
  • 31
    Dunn KM, Croft PR. The importance of symptom duration in determining prognosis. Pain 2006; 121: 12632.
  • 32
    Kori SH, Miller RP, Todd DD. Kinisophobia: a new view of chronic pain behavior. Pain Manag 1990; 3: 3543.
  • 33
    Sullivan MJ, Bishop SR, Pivik J. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale: development and validation. Psychol Assess 1995; 7: 52432.
  • 34
    Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The Patient Health Questionnaire-2: validity of a two-item depression screener. Med Care 2003; 41: 128492.
  • 35
    Sullivan MJ, Stanish WD. Psychologically based occupational rehabilitation: the Pain-Disability Prevention Program. Clin J Pain 2003; 19: 97104.
  • 36
    Nederhand MJ, Ijzerman MJ, Hermens HJ, Turk DC, Zilvold G. Predictive value of fear avoidance in developing chronic neck pain disability: consequences for clinical decision making. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85: 496501.
  • 37
    Hosmer DW, Lemeshaw S. Applied logistic regression. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley; 2000.
  • 38
    Streiner DL, Norman GR. Health measurement scales: a practical guide to their development and use. New York: Oxford University; 2003.
  • 39
    Streiner DL. Being inconsistent about consistency: when coefficient alpha does and doesn't matter. J Pers Assess 2003; 80: 21722.
  • 40
    Smeets RJ, Vlaeyen JW, Hidding A, Kester AD, van der Heijden GJ, van Geel AC, et al. Active rehabilitation for chronic low back pain: cognitive-behavioral, physical, or both? First direct post-treatment results from a randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2006; 7: 5.
  • 41
    Klaber Moffett JA, Carr J, Howarth E. High fear-avoiders of physical activity benefit from an exercise program for patients with back pain. Spine 2004; 29: 116772.
  • 42
    George SZ, Fritz JM, Bialosky JE, Donald DA. The effect of a fear-avoidance-based physical therapy intervention for patients with acute low back pain: results of a randomized clinical trial. Spine 2003; 28: 255160.
  • 43
    Foster NE, Bishop A, Thomas E, Main C, Horne R, Weinman J, et al. Illness perceptions of low back pain patients in primary care: what are they, do they change, and are they associated with outcome? Pain 2008. E-pub ahead of print.
  • 44
    Rosenstiel AK, Keefe FJ. The use of coping strategies in chronic low back pain patients: relationship to patient characteristics and current adjustment. Pain 1983; 17: 3344.
  • 45
    Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1983; 67: 36170.
  • 46
    Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale (NJ): L. Erlbaum Associates; 1998.
  • 47
    Bouter LM, Pennick V, Bombardier C, and the Editorial Board of the Back Review Group. Cochrane Back Review Group. Spine 2003; 28: 12158.
  • 48
    Borkan JM, Koes B, Reis S, Cherkin DC. A report from the Second International Forum for Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain: reexamining priorities. Spine 1998; 23: 19926.
  • 49
    Mason V, and the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Social Survey Division. The prevalence of back pain in Great Britain. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office; 1994.
  • 50
    Picavet HS, Schouten JS. Musculoskeletal pain in The Netherlands: prevalences, consequences and risk groups, the DMC(3)-study. Pain 2003; 102: 16778.
  • 51
    Macfarlane GJ, Jones GT, Hannaford PC. Managing low back pain presenting to primary care: where do we go from here? Pain 2006; 122: 21922.
  • 52
    Van der Windt D, Hay E, Jellema P, Main C. Psychosocial interventions for low back pain in primary care: lessons learned from recent trials. Spine 2008; 33: 819.