SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Khan AY, Preskorn SH, Baker B. Effect of study criteria on recruitment and generalizability of the results. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2005; 25: 2715.
  • 2
    Gross CP, Mallory R, Heiat A, Krumholz HM. Reporting the recruitment process in clinical trials: who are these patients and how did they get there? Ann Intern Med 2002; 137: 106.
  • 3
    Charlson ME, Horwitz RI. Applying results of randomized trials to clinical practice: impact of losses before randomization. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984; 289: 12814.
  • 4
    Altman DG, Schulz KF, Moher D, Egger M, Davidoff F, Elbourne D, et al, and the CONSORT Group. The revised CONSORT statement for reporting randomized trials: explanation and elaboration. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134: 66394.
  • 5
    Thompson AE, Pope JE. Increased prevalence of scleroderma in southwestern Ontario: a cluster analysis. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 186773.
  • 6
    Knobler RM, French LE, Kim Y, Bisaccia E, Graninger W, Nahavandi H, et al, and the Systemic Sclerosis Study Group. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of photopheresis in systemic sclerosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 54: 7939.
  • 7
    Cracowski JL, Girolet S, Imbert B, Seinturier C, Stanke-Labesque F, Bessard J, et al. Effects of short-term treatment with vitamin E in systemic sclerosis: a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial of efficacy based on urinary isoprostane measurement. Free Radic Biol Med 2005; 38: 98103.
  • 8
    Genovese MC, Chakravarty EF, Boyle DL, Tutuncu Z, Thorburn CM, Halilhodzic M, et al. A randomized, blinded, parallel-group, placebo-controlled pilot study evaluating the effect of PVAC treatment in patients with diffuse systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol 2005; 32: 234550.
  • 9
    Korn JH, Mayes M, Matucci Cerinic M, Rainisio M, Pope J, Hachulla E, et al, for the RAPIDS-1 Study Group. Digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: prevention by treatment with bosentan, an oral endothelin receptor antagonist. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 398593.
  • 10
    Wise RA, Wigley FM, White B, Leatherman G, Zhong J, Krasa H, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of a selective α2C-adrenergic receptor blocker in recovery from cold-induced vasospasm in scleroderma patients: a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 39944001.
  • 11
    Mavrikakis ME, Lekakis JP, Papamichael CM, Stamatelopoulos KS, Kostopoulos CC, Stamatelopoulos SF. Ascorbic acid does not improve endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2003; 73: 37.
  • 12
    Wang SJ, La JL, Chen DY, Chen YH, Hsieh TY, Lin WY. Effects of cisapride on oesophageal transit of solids in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis. Clin Rheumatol 2002; 21: 435.
  • 13
    Pope JE, Bellamy N, Seibold JR, Baron M, Ellman M, Carette S, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of methotrexate versus placebo in early diffuse scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 13518.
  • 14
    Scorza R, Caronni M, Mascagni B, Berruti V, Bazzi S, Micallef E, et al. Effects of long-term cyclic iloprost therapy in systemic sclerosis with Raynaud's phenomenon: a randomized controlled study. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2001; 19: 5038.
  • 15
    Herrick AL, Hollis S, Schofield D, Rieley F, Blann A, Griffin K, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of antioxidant therapy in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2000; 18: 34956.
  • 16
    Seibold JR, Korn JH, Simms R, Clements PJ, Moreland LW, Mayes MD, et al. Recombinant human relaxin in the treatment of scleroderma: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132: 8719.
  • 17
    Black CM, Silman AJ, Herrick AI, Denton CP, Wilson H, Newman J, et al. Interferon-α does not improve outcome at one year in patients with diffuse cutaneous scleroderma: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 299305.
  • 18
    Clements PJ, Furst DE, Wong WK, Mayes M, White B, Wigley F, et al. High-dose versus low-dose D-penicillamine in early diffuse systemic sclerosis: analysis of a two-year, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 1194203.
  • 19
    Enomoto DN, Mekkes JR, Bossuyt PM, Yong SL, Out TA, Hoekzema R, et al. Treatment of patients with systemic sclerosis with extracorporeal photochemotherapy (photopheresis). J Am Acad Dermatol 1999; 41: 91522.
  • 20
    Paulisinski R, Chibowska M, Bilan A, Ostrowski S, Weglarz J, Krasowska D, et al. Enalapril (10 mg/day) in systemic sclerosis. One year, double-blind, randomized study (ESS-1): electrocardiographic substudy, three months followup. Adv Exp Med Biol 1999; 455: 2958.
  • 21
    Vayssairat M, and the French Microcirculation Society Multicenter Group for the Study of Vascular Acrosyndromes. Preventive effect of an oral prostacyclin analog, beraprost sodium, on digital necrosis in systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 21738.
  • 22
    Black CM, Halkier-Sorensen L, Belch JJ, Ullman S, Madhok R, Smit AJ, et al. Oral iloprost in Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis: a multicentre, placebo-controlled, dose-comparison study. Br J Rheumatol 1998; 37: 95260.
  • 23
    Furst DE, Clements PJ, Steen VD, Medsger TA Jr, Masi AT, D'Angelo WA, et al. The modified Rodnan skin score is an accurate reflection of skin biopsy thickness in systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 848.
  • 24
    Lekakis J, Papamichael C, Mavrikakis M, Voutsas A, Stamatelopoulos S. Effect of long-term estrogen therapy on brachial arterial endothelium-dependent vasodilation in women with Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis. Am J Cardiol 1998; 82: 15557.
  • 25
    Wigley FM, Korn JH, Csuka ME, Medsger TA Jr, Rothfield NF, Ellman M, et al. Oral iloprost treatment in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis: a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 6707.
  • 26
    Ciompi ML, Bazzichi L, Melchiorre D, De Giorgio F, Bondi F, Puccetti L. A placebo-controlled study on urokinase therapy in systemic sclerosis. Biomed Pharmacother 1996; 50: 3638.
  • 27
    Stainforth JM, Layton AM, Goodfield MJ. Clinical aspects of the use of gamma linolenic acid in systemic sclerosis. Acta Derm Venereol 1996; 76: 1446.
  • 28
    Van den Hoogen FH, Boerbooms AM, Swaak AJ, Rasker JJ, van Lier HJ, van de Putte LB. Comparison of methotrexate with placebo in the treatment of systemic sclerosis: a 24-week randomized double-blind trial, followed by a 24-week observational trial. Br J Rheumatol 1996; 35: 36472.
  • 29
    Belch JJ, Capell HA, Cooke ED, Kirby JD, Lau CS, Madhok R, et al. Oral iloprost as a treatment for Raynaud's syndrome: a double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis 1995; 54: 197200.
  • 30
    Clegg DO, Reading JC, Mayes MD, Seibold JR, Harris C, Wigley FM, et al. Comparison of aminobenzoate potassium and placebo in the treatment of scleroderma. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 10510.
  • 31
    Horikoshi T, Matsuzaki T, Sekiguchi T. Effect of H2 receptor antagonists cimetidine and famotidine on interdigestive gastric motor activity and lower esophageal sphincter pressure in progressive systemic sclerosis. Intern Med 1994; 33: 40712.
  • 32
    Sharada B, Kumar A, Kakker R, Adya CM, Pande I, Uppal SS, et al. Intravenous dexamethasone pulse therapy in diffuse systemic sclerosis: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Rheumatol Int 1994; 14: 914.
  • 33
    Wigley FM, Wise RA, Seibold JR, McCloskey DA, Kujala G, Medsger TA Jr, et al. Intravenous iloprost infusion in patients with Raynaud phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis: a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Ann Intern Med 1994; 120: 199206.
  • 34
    Lau CS, Belch JJ, Madhok R, Cappell H, Herrick A, Jayson M, et al. A randomized, double-blind study of cicaprost, an oral prostacyclin analogue, in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1993; 11: 3540.
  • 35
    Klimiuk PS, Kay EA, Illingworth KJ, Gush RJ, Taylor LJ, Baker RD, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in the treatment of digital ischemia in systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 71620.
  • 36
    Rook AH, Freundlich B, Jegasothy BV, Perez MI, Barr WG, Jimenez SA, et al. Treatment of systemic sclerosis with extracorporeal photochemotherapy: results of a multicenter trial. Arch Dermatol 1992; 128: 33746.
  • 37
    Wigley FM, Seibold JR, Wise RA, McCloskey DA, Dole WP. Intravenous iloprost treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon and ischemic ulcers secondary to systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 140714.
  • 38
    Gruber BL, Kaufman LD. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of ketotifen versus placebo in early diffuse scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum 1991; 34: 3626.
  • 39
    Kahan A, Chaussade S, Gaudric M, Freitag B, Amor B, Menkes CJ, et al. The effect of cisapride on gastroesophageal dysfunction in systemic sclerosis: a controlled manometric study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1991; 31: 6837.
  • 40
    Lau CS, McLaren M, Saniabadi A, Scott N, Belch JJ. The pharmacological effects of cicaprost, an oral prostacyclin analogue, in patients with Raynaud's syndrome secondary to systemic sclerosis: a preliminary study. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1991; 9: 2713.
  • 41
    Thurm CA, Wigley FM, Dole WP, Wise RA. Failure of vasodilator infusion to alter pulmonary diffusing capacity in systemic sclerosis. Am J Med 1991; 90: 54752.
  • 42
    Casas JA, Saway PA, Villarreal I, Nolte C, Menajovsky BL, Escudero EE, et al. 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of scleroderma: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled international collaborative study. Ann Rheum Dis 1990; 49: 9268.
  • 43
    Furst DE, Clements PJ, Hillis S, Lachenbruch PA, Miller BL, Sterz MG, et al. Immunosuppression with chlorambucil, versus placebo, for scleroderma: results of a three-year, parallel, randomized, double-blind study. Arthritis Rheum 1989; 32: 58493.
  • 44
    O'Dell JR, Steigerwald JC, Kennaugh RC, Hawkins R, Holers VM, Kotzin BL. Lack of clinical benefit after treatment of systemic sclerosis with total lymphoid irradiation. J Rheumatol 1989; 16: 10504.
  • 45
    Ortonne JP, Torzuoli C, Dujardin P, Fraitag B. Ketanserin in the treatment of systemic sclerosis: a double-blind controlled trial. Br J Dermatol 1989; 120: 2616.
  • 46
    Rademaker M, Cooke ED, Almond NE, Beacham JA, Smith RE, Mant TG, et al. Comparison of intravenous infusions of iloprost and oral nifedipine in treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon in patients with systemic sclerosis: a double-blind randomized study. BMJ 1989; 298: 5614.
  • 47
    Hendel L, Aggestrup S, Stentoft P. Long-term ranitidine in progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with gastroesophageal reflux. Scand J Gastroenterol 1986; 21: 799805.
  • 48
    Kahan A, Bour B, Couturier D, Amor B, Menkes CJ. Nifedipine and esophageal dysfunction in progressive systemic sclerosis: a controlled manometric study. Arthritis Rheum 1985; 28: 4905.
  • 49
    Lukac J, Rovensky J, Tauchmannova H, Zitnan D. Effect of ketanserin on Raynaud's phenomenon in progressive systemic sclerosis: a double-blind trial. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1985; 11: 65963.
  • 50
    Williams HJ, Furst DE, Dahl SL, Steen VD, Marks C, Alpert EJ, et al. Double-blind, multicenter controlled trial comparing topical dimethyl sulfoxide and normal saline for treatment of hand ulcers in patients with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 1985; 28: 30814.
  • 51
    Beckett VL, Conn DL, Fuster V, Osmundson PJ, Strong CG, Chao EY, et al. Trial of platelet-inhibiting drug in scleroderma: double-blind study with dipyridamole and aspirin. Arthritis Rheum 1984; 27: 113743.
  • 52
    Surwit RS, Gilgor RS, Allen LM, Duvic M. A double-blind study of prazosin in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon in scleroderma. Arch Dermatol 1984; 120: 32931.
  • 53
    Blom-Bulow B, Oberg K, Wollheim FA, Persson B, Jonson B, Malmberg P, et al. Cyclofenil versus placebo in progressive systemic sclerosis: a 1-year double-blind crossover study of 27 patients. Acta Med Scand 1981; 210: 41928.
  • 54
    Delbarre F, Godeau P, Thivolet J. Factor XIII treatment for scleroderma [letter]. Lancet 1981; 2: 204.
  • 55
    Frayha RA. Colchicine therapy in scleroderma: preliminary results. Dermatologica 1979; 159: 7881.
  • 56
    Petrokubi RJ, Jeffries GH. Cimetidine versus antacid in scleroderma with reflux esophagitis: a randomized double-blind controlled study. Gastroenterology 1979; 77: 6915.
  • 57
    Silber W, Gitlin N. Progressive systemic sclerosis (diffuse scleroderma): a followup report of treatment with potaba. S Afr Med J 1973; 47: 10012.
  • 58
    Tashkin DP, Elashoff R, Clements PJ, Goldin J, Roth MD, Furst DE, et al, and the Scleroderma Lung Study Research Group. Cyclophosphamide versus placebo in scleroderma lung disease. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 265566.
  • 59
    Seibold JR, Clements PJ, Furst DE, Mayes MD, McCloskey DA, Moreland LW, et al. Safety and pharmacokinetics of recombinant human relaxin in systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 3027.
  • 60
    Hoyles RK, Ellis RW, Wellsbury J, Lees B, Newlands P, Goh NS, et al. A multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of corticosteroids and intravenous cyclophosphamide followed by oral azathioprine for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis in scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 396270.
  • 61
    Csuka ME. Immunosuppressive therapy and autologus hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for treatment of severe systemic sclerosis [review]. Scleroderma Care Res 2005; 3: 313.
  • 62
    Nadashkevich O, Davis P, Fritzler M, Kovalenko W. A randomized unblinded trial of cyclophosphamide versus azathioprine in the treatment of systemic sclerosis. Clin Rheumatol 2006; 25: 20512.
  • 63
    Dziadzio M, Denton CP, Smith R, Howell K, Blann A, Bowers E, et al. Losartan therapy for Raynaud's phenomenon and scleroderma: clinical and biochemical findings in a fifteen-week, randomized, parallel-group, controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 264655.
  • 64
    Fries R, Shariat K, von Wilmowsky H, Bohm M. Sildenafil in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon resistant to vasodilatory therapy. Circulation 2005; 112: 29805.
  • 65
    Galie N, Ghofrani HA, Torbicki A, Barst RJ, Rubin LJ, Badesch D, et al, and the Sildenafil Use in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (SUPER) Study Group. Sildenafil citrate therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension [published erratum appears in N Engl J Med 2006;354:2400–1]. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 214857.
  • 66
    Wilkins MR, Paul GA, Strange JW, Tonariu N, Gin-Sing W, Banya WA, et al. Sildenafil versus Endothelin Receptor Antagonist for Pulmonary Hypertension (SERAPH) study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005; 171: 12927.
  • 67
    Ghofrani HA, Wiedemann R, Rose F, Olschewski H, Schermuly RT, Weissmann N, et al. Combination therapy with oral sildenafil and inhaled iloprost for severe pulmonary hypertension. Ann Intern Med 2002; 136: 51522.
  • 68
    Olschewski H, Simonneau G, Galie N, Higenbottam T, Naeije R, Rubin LJ, et al, and the Aerosolized Iloprost Randomized Study Group. Inhaled iloprost for severe pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 3229.
  • 69
    Humbert M, Barst RJ, Robbins IM, Channick RN, Galie N, Boonstra A, et al. Combination of bosentan with epoprostenol in pulmonary arterial hypertension: BREATHE-2. Eur Respir J 2004; 24: 3539.
  • 70
    Barst RJ, Langleben D, Frost A, Horn EM, Oudiz R, Shapiro S, et al, and the STRIDE-1 Study Group. Sitaxsentan therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004; 169: 4417.
  • 71
    Simonneau G, Barst RJ, Galie N, Naeije R, Rich S, Bourge RC, et al, and the Treprostinil Study Group. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of treprostinil, a prostacyclin analogue, in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 165: 8004.
  • 72
    Badesch DB, Tapson VF, McGoon MD, Brundage BH, Rubin LJ, Wigley FM, et al. Continuous intravenous epoprostenol for pulmonary hypertension due to the scleroderma spectrum of disease: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132: 42534.
  • 73
    Rubin LJ, Badesch DB, Barst RJ, Galie N, Black CM, Keogh A, et al. Bosentan therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension [published erratum appears in N Engl J Med 2002;346:1258]. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 896903.
  • 74
    Barst RJ, McGoon M, McLaughlin V, Tapson V, Rich S, Rubin L, et al, and the Berapost Study Group. Beraprost therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension [published erratum appears in J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:591]. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 41: 211925.
  • 75
    Barst RJ, Langleben D, Badesch D, Frost A, Lawrence EC, Shapiro S, et al, and the STRIDE-2 Study Group. Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension with the selective endothelin-A receptor antagonist sitaxsentan. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 47: 204956.
  • 76
    Channick RN, Simonneau G, Sitbon O, Robbins IM, Frost A, Tapson VF, et al. Effects of the dual endothelin-receptor antagonist bosentan in patients with pulmonary hypertension: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Lancet 2001; 358: 111923.
  • 77
    Seibold JR, Matucci-Cerinic M, Denton CP, Furst DE, Mayes MD, Kramer F, et al. Bosentan reduces the number of new digital ulcers in patients with systemic sclerosis [abstract]. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: S90.
  • 78
    Pope JE, Lee P, Baron M, Dunne J, Smith D, Docherty PS, et al. Prevalence of elevated pulmonary arterial pressures measured by echocardiography in a multicenter study of patients with systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol 2005; 32: 12738.
  • 79
    Kotwall CA, Mahoney LJ, Myers RE, DeCoste L. Reasons for nonentry in randomized clinical trials for breast cancer: a single institutional study. J Surg Oncol 1992; 50: 1259.
  • 80
    Lee JY, Breaux SR. Accrual of radiotherapy patients to clinical trials. Cancer 1983; 52: 10146.
  • 81
    Fuks A, Weijer C, Freedman B, Shapiro S, Skrutkowska M, Riaz A. A study in contrasts: eligibility criteria in a 20-year sample of NSABP and POG clinical trials. J Clin Epidemiol 1998; 51: 6979.
  • 82
    Charles C, Clements P, Furst DE. Systemic sclerosis: hypothesis-driven treatment strategies. Lancet 2006; 367: 168391.
  • 83
    Gartlehner G, Hansen RA, Nissman D, Lohr KN, Carey TS. A simple and valid tool distinguished efficacy from effectiveness studies. J Clin Epidemiol 2006; 59: 10408.
  • 84
    West S, King V, Carey TS, Lohr KN, McKoy N, Sutton SF, et al, and the Research Triangle Institute University of North Carolina Evidence -based Practice Center. Systems to rate the strength of scientific evidence: evidence report/technology assessment number 47. Health Services/Technology Assessment Text. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2002.
  • 85
    Harris RP, Helfand M, Woolf SH, Lohr KN, Mulrow CD, Teutsch SM, et al, and the Methods Work Group, Third US Preventive Services Task Force. Current methods of the US Preventive Services Task Force: a review of the process. Am J Prev Med 2001; 20(3 Suppl ): 2135.
  • 86
    Shapiro SH, Weijer C, Freedman B. Reporting the study populations of clinical trials: clear transmission or static on the line? J Clin Epidemiol 2000; 53: 9739.