Safety and usefulness of minor salivary gland biopsy: Retrospective analysis of 502 procedures performed at a single center

Authors


Abstract

Objective

To analyze the safety of our biopsy technique and the effectiveness of minor salivary gland biopsy (MSGB) for the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and amyloidosis.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective analysis of 452 patients with suspected SS and 50 with suspected amyloidosis and negative periumbilical fat aspiration analysis who underwent MSGB at a single center. Diagnostic evaluation for SS included Schirmer's test, unstimulated whole salivary flow, detection of antinuclear antibodies and anti-SSA/SSB, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, IgM rheumatoid factor, and serology for hepatitis C virus. For all biopsy samples, a cumulative focus score on multilevel sections was calculated. SS was diagnosed according to American-European Consensus Group (AECG) criteria. Histologic evaluation for amyloidosis was performed using Congo red staining and polarized-light microscopy. Adverse events were recorded on a questionnaire immediately after the procedure and 7 days, 14 days, and 6 months thereafter.

Results

Sixty-four patients (12.7%) reported transient adverse events: 40 paresthesias lasting <7 days, 17 paresthesias lasting <14 days, 27 cases of local swelling, and 8 external hematoma. One patient has had local paresthesia for 2 years. A total of 498 (99.2%) samples provided adequate material for histologic analysis. Of 452 patients evaluated for SS, 378 were finally evaluated. Ninety-three patients (24.5%) had a cumulative focus score ≥1, and 87 (94.5%) of 93 satisfied the AECG criteria. Classification of SS was possible for 124 (32.8%) of 378 patients. In 51 (41%) of 124, MSGB was essential to reach the number of criteria needed for classification. Of 50 patients evaluated for amyloidosis, 10 (20%) had positive Congo red staining.

Conclusion

MSGB is a simple, safe, and reliable tool for the diagnosis of SS and amyloidosis, and therefore is suitable for more extensive application.

Ancillary