• 1
    Barrett EM, Scott DG, Wiles NJ, Symmons DP. The impact of rheumatoid arthritis on employment status in the early years of disease: a UK community-based study. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2000; 39: 14039.
  • 2
    Boonen A, Chorus A, Miedema H, van der Heijde D, Landewe R, Schouten H, et al. Withdrawal from labour force due to work disability in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis 2001; 60: 10339.
  • 3
    Callahan LF, Bloch DA, Pincus T. Identification of work disability in rheumatoid arthritis: physical, radiographic and laboratory variables do not add explanatory power to demographic and functional variables. J Clin Epidemiol 1992; 45: 12738.
  • 4
    Doeglas D, Suurmeijer T, Krol B, Sanderman R, van Leeuwen M, van Rijswijk M. Work disability in early rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1995; 54: 45560.
  • 5
    Fex E, Larsson BM, Nived K, Eberhardt K. Effect of rheumatoid arthritis on work status and social and leisure time activities in patients followed 8 years from onset. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 4450.
  • 6
    Lacaille D, Sheps S, Spinelli JJ, Chalmers A, Esdaile JM. Identification of modifiable work-related factors that influence the risk of work disability in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 84352.
  • 7
    Mau W, Listing J, Huscher D, Zeidler H, Zink A. Employment across chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases and comparison with the general population. J Rheumatol 2005; 32: 7218.
  • 8
    Reisine S, McQuillan J, Fifield J. Predictors of work disability in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a five-year followup. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 16307.
  • 9
    Sokka T, Kautiainen H, Mottonen T, Hannonen P. Work disability in rheumatoid arthritis 10 years after the diagnosis. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 16815.
  • 10
    Verstappen SM, Bijlsma JW, Verkleij H, Buskens E, Blaauw AA, ter Borg EJ, et al, on behalf of the Utrecht Rheumatoid Arthritis Cohort Study Group. Overview of work disability in rheumatoid arthritis patients as observed in cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys [review]. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 48897.
  • 11
    Wolfe F, Hawley DJ. The longterm outcomes of rheumatoid arthritis: work disability. A prospective 18 year study of 823 patients. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 210817.
  • 12
    Yelin E, Henke C, Epstein W. The work dynamics of the person with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 50712.
  • 13
    Young A, Dixey J, Kulinskaya E, Cox N, Davies P, Devlin J, et al. Which patients stop working because of rheumatoid arthritis? Results of five years' follow up in 732 patients from the Early RA Study (ERAS). Ann Rheum Dis 2002; 61: 33540.
  • 14
    Allaire SH, Li W, LaValley MP. Work barriers experienced and job accommodations used by persons with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. Rehabil Couns Bull 2003; 46: 14756.
  • 15
    Barlow JH, Wright CC, Williams B, Keat A. Work disability among people with ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 45: 4249.
  • 16
    Chorus AM, Miedema HS, Wevers CW, van der Linden S. Work factors and behavioural coping in relation to withdrawal from the labour force in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2001; 60: 102532.
  • 17
    Gignac MA. Arthritis and employment: an examination of behavioral coping efforts to manage workplace activity limitations. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 53: 32836.
  • 18
    Gignac MA, Sutton D, Badley EM. Reexamining the arthritis-employment interface: perceptions of arthritis-work spillover among employed adults. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 55: 23340.
  • 19
    Lacaille D, White MA, Backman CL, Gignac MA. Problems faced at work due to inflammatory arthritis: new insights gained from understanding patients' perspective. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 57: 126979.
  • 20
    Mancuso CA, Paget SA, Charlson ME. Adaptations made by rheumatoid arthritis patients to continue working: a pilot study of workplace challenges and successful adaptations. Arthritis Care Res 2000; 13: 8999.
  • 21
    Yelin E, Sonneborn D, Trupin L. The prevalence and impact of accommodations on the employment of persons 51–61 years of age with musculoskeletal conditions. Arthritis Care Res 2000; 13: 16876.
  • 22
    Amick BC 3rd, Lerner D, Rogers WH, Rooney T, Katz JN. A review of health-related work outcome measures and their uses, and recommended measures. Spine 2000; 25: 315260.
  • 23
    Badley EM, DesMeules M. Arthritis in Canada: an ongoing challenge. Ottawa: Health Canada; 2003.
  • 24
    Beaton D, Tang K, Gignac MA, Lacaille D, Badley EM, Anis AH, et al. Comparison of measurement properties of five at-work disability measures in persons with osteoarthritis [abstract]. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2007; 15 Suppl C: C159.
  • 25
    Brouwer WB, Meerding WJ, Lamers LM, Severens JL. The relationship between productivity and health-related QOL: an exploration. Pharmacoeconomics 2005; 23: 20918.
  • 26
    Burton W, Morrison A, Maclean R, Ruderman E. Systematic review of studies of productivity loss due to rheumatoid arthritis. Occup Med (Lond) 2006; 56: 1827.
  • 27
    Clarke AE, Zowall H, Levinton C, Assimakopoulos H, Sibley JT, Haga M, et al. Direct and indirect medical costs incurred by Canadian patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a 12 year study. J Rheumatol 1997; 24: 105160.
  • 28
    Fautrel B, Guillemin F. Cost of illness studies in rheumatic diseases. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2002; 14: 1216.
  • 29
    Gabriel SE, Crowson CS, Campion ME, O'Fallon WM. Indirect and nonmedical costs among people with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis compared with nonarthritic controls. J Rheumatol 1997; 24: 438.
  • 30
    Li X, Gignac MA, Anis AH. The indirect costs of arthritis resulting from unemployment, reduced performance, and occupational changes while at work. Med Care 2006; 44: 30410.
  • 31
    Theis KA, Murphy L, Hootman JM, Helmick CG, Yelin E. Prevalence and correlates of arthritis-attributable work limitation in the US population among persons ages 18–64: 2002 National Health Interview Survey Data. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 57: 35563.
  • 32
    Verstappen SM, Boonen A, Verkleij H, Bijlsma JW, Buskens E, Jacobs JW. Productivity costs among patients with rheumatoid arthritis: the influence of methods and sources to value loss of productivity. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: 175460.
  • 33
    Yelin E. The costs of rheumatoid arthritis: absolute, incremental, and marginal estimates. J Rheumatol Suppl 1996; 44: 4751.
  • 34
    Yelin E, Cisternas M, Pasta D, Trupin L. Direct and indirect costs of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions: United States, 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003; 52: 11247.
  • 35
    Clogg C, Sullivan T, Mutchler JE. Measuring underemployment and inequality in the work force. Soc Indic Res 1986; 18: 37593.
  • 36
    Clarke M, Lewchuk W, de Wolff A, King A. ‘This just isn’t sustainable': precarious employment, stress and workers' health. Int J Law Psychiatry 2007; 30: 31126.
  • 37
    Gignac MA, Badley EM, Lacaille D, Cott CC, Adam P, Anis AH. Managing arthritis and employment: making arthritis-related work changes as a means of adaptation. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 90916.
  • 38
    Krieg RG. Occupational change, employer change, internal migration, and earnings. Reg Sci Urban Econ 1997; 27: 115.
  • 39
    Mutchler JE, Burr JA, Massagli MP, Pienta A. Work transitions and health in later life. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 1999; 54: S25261.
  • 40
    Swaen GM, Kant IJ, van Amelsvoort LG, Beurskens AJ. Job mobility, its determinants, and its effects: longitudinal data from the Maastricht Cohort Study. J Occup Health Psychol 2002; 7: 1219.
  • 41
    Gignac MA, Backman CL, Davis AM, Lacaille D, Mattison CA, Montie P, et al. Understanding social role participation: what matters to people with arthritis? J Rheumatol 2008; 35: 165563.
  • 42
    Healy ML. Management strategies for an aging work force. AAOHN J 2001; 49: 5239.
  • 43
    American Association of Retired Persons. Flexible ways of working. Washington, DC: AARP; 2000.
  • 44
    Hansson M, Bostrom C, Harms-Ringdahl K. Sickness absence and sickness attendance: what people with neck or back pain think. Soc Sci Med 2006; 9: 218395.
  • 45
    Taimela S, Laara E, Malmivaara A, Tiekso J, Sintonen H, Justen S, et al. Self-reported health problems and sickness absence in different age groups predominantly engaged in physical work. Occup Environ Med 2007; 64: 73946.
  • 46
    Busch H, Goransson S, Melin B. Self-efficacy beliefs predict sustained long-term sick absenteeism in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Pain Pract 2007; 7: 23440.
  • 47
    Gignac MA, Davis AM, Hawker G, Wright JG, Mahomed N, Fortin PR, et al. “What do you expect? You're just getting older”: a comparison of perceived osteoarthritis-related and aging-related health experiences in middle- and older-age adults. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 55: 90512.
  • 48
    National Occupation Classification Matrix. Human Resources and Social Development Canada. 2001. URL:
  • 49
    Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas 1977; 1: 385401.
  • 50
    Allison P. Fixed effects regression methods for longitudinal data. Cary (NC): SAS Institute; 2005.
  • 51
    Singer JD, Willett JB. Applied longitudinal data analysis: modeling change and event occurrence. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2003.
  • 52
    Omariba DW, Gignac MA, Badley EM. Arthritis and labour force participation in the working age population. Toronto: The Arthritis Community Research and Evaluation Unit at The University Health Network; 2007.
  • 53
    Machado GP, Gignac MA, Badley EM. Participation restrictions among older adults with osteoarthritis: a mediated model of physical symptoms, activity limitations, and depression. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 59: 12935.